Russian is an East Slavic language, which is official in the Russian Federation, Belarus, It is the most widely spoken of the Slavic languages, with million . 77% of the population was fluent in Russian in , and 67% used it as the. Religion in Russia is diverse with Christianity, especially Orthodoxy, being the most widely professed faith, but with significant minorities of Irreligious people, . This principle is often used to estimate the magnitude of very small groups. Russians (Russian: русские, russkiye) are an East Slavic ethnic group native to Eastern One is "русский" (russkiy), which most often means "ethnic Russians" ( the subject The name of the Russians derives from the Rus' people ( supposedly .. It continues to be used in the countries that were formerly parts of the Soviet.
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Russians decorate their homes with a Christmas tree and often put pine leaves on their front doors, and in the house. The Russian Christmas tree is usually taken down at the end of January after the feast day of the Baptism of Christ. Russian Christmas Religious Traditions. In the Orthodox tradition nothing is eaten or drunk on Christmas Eve until the first star appears in the sky.
The star is symbolic of the great star that led the Magi to the newly born Christ. Once the first star has appeared in the sky, the festivities begin with a Lenten meal - meaning meat or dairy products including chocolates are excluded. The family gathers around the table to honor the coming Christ Child.
A white tablecloth is used to symbolize Christ's swaddling clothes and hay is displayed as a reminder of the poverty of the place where Jesus was born. A tall white candle is placed in the center of the Table, to symbolize Christ - the "Light of the World. The father begins the Christmas meal by leading the family in the Lord's Prayer, a prayer of thanksgiving for the blessings of the past year and for the good things to come in the new year. The head of the family greets those present with "Christ is Born!
The bread is dipped first in honey to symbolize the sweetness of life and then in chopped garlic to symbolize life's bitterness. The "Holy Supper" is then eaten. After dinner, no dishes are washed and the Christmas presents are opened. The family goes to church for the Christmas Mass which lasts until after midnight. Although there was also some variation in the foods from place to place and village to village, the following is a good summary of what is typically served. On Christmas morning the family returns to church for the Christmas day Liturgy.
After church the family gathers together to exchange gifts and share a special Christmas meal. Children go from door to door caroling the song "Thy Nativity".
Preheat the oven to degrees F degrees C. Cream together sugar and margarine. Mix in the sour cream. Add the unbeaten eggs, one at a time. In a separate bowl mix the flour, baking powder, and baking soda. The dough will become stiff. Spoon half the dough into a well-greased and floured inch tube pan. Mix together the topping ingredients: Add the remaining dough and sprinkle rest of topping.
They are mostly young women, aged from years and they are the main new risk group. Women living with HIV, especially young women, face multiple challenges and barriers to accessing HIV services such as stigma, discrimination, gender stereotypes, violence and barriers to sexual and reproductive health. In , around , people were in prison in Russia. This is equivalent to out of every , people in the country, the second highest rate in the region after Turkmenistan per , , and far in excess of the global average of prisoners per , Nearly all drug-related convictions are for drug use rather than drug trafficking.
I was shipped to a specialty tuberculosis colony. It seemed like everyone with tuberculosis also had HIV. I survived the scariest place I had ever been. We were 36 men in a cell with only 12 beds. We stood, coughed on each other, while others slept in shifts. Most guys, including me, would stop or dispose of our tuberculosis medications so that we could get sick and move from our cell to the infirmary where we'd get our own bed. Many who went to the infirmary never left except in a pine box because their medications didn't work anymore.
In Russia, data relating to men who have sex with men sometimes referred to as MSM is extremely limited. As a result of this repressive environment, HIV treatment coverage for men who have sex with men is low. A study involving around 1, Moscow-based men who have sex with men found HIV prevalence of Data on sex workers is also limited. City-based data from suggests HIV prevalence among sex-workers is between 3.
Petersburg were living with HIV. This criminalisation puts sex workers in a vulnerable position and they are often subject to violence, abuse, harassment and exploitation at the hands of clients, police officers, health workers and others in authority.
In a study of almost female sex workers conducted in St. Those who had experienced rape were more likely to inject drugs and binge on alcohol, both of which increases vulnerability to HIV.
Although data is limited, it is estimated that around , people in Russia are unaware they are HIV positive. Even where testing is available, people are often diagnosed with HIV at a late stage of infection. A evidence review of around 40 studies on HIV testing and treatment in Russia found the most common barriers to testing were the inconvenient location of testing centres, which are not widespread across cities or districts, and the view that results would not remain confidential.
There is no formal policy on HIV self-testing in Russia. As of November , self-testing kits were available online for private purchase and in some local pharmacies. As a result, HIV self-testing is not widespread in the country. It is estimated that around people become infected with HIV every day. The strategy aims to reduce transmission rates by focusing on prevention programmes and decrease the number of AIDS-related deaths.
Although condoms are widely available to buy, there are no government-backed free distribution schemes, and condom use is thought to be low. The practice of using condoms is also controversial.
For instance, a national public health campaign about HIV prevention focused on faithfulness rather than condom use. This put forward the argument that the availability of condoms and their use was encouraging young people to have sex and was thereby increasing the risk of HIV infection. Funding for sexuality education in schools is minimal. In addition, certain laws regulate the appropriateness and delivery of information to people under the age of 18, which effectively bans many comprehensive sexuality education materials for those younger than As a result, there are no nationally implemented, comprehensive sexuality or lifeskills programmes in school for children and adolescents.
In Russia, the church and the state go together… They talk about how sexual education will only worsen the [HIV] problem. Despite this, support for introducing sexuality education in school curricula appears to be widespread in some sections of society.
This is largely down to the high coverage levels of antenatal care. Russia does provide access to certain harm reduction services. However, coverage is extremely low, and where services do exist they are not comprehensive.
The Global Fund had previously financed the majority of NSP work; when it withdrew, the Russian government did not replace funding, and the number of needle exchanges in the country dropped from 80 to This labels the organisation a threat to national security and makes it hard for the Foundation to work with other Russian organisations and suppliers. The Russian government views OST as merely replacing one addiction with another. Its use is illegal, punishable with up to 20 years in prison.
Without access to opioids or OST in hospitals, people who inject drugs are highly likely to discharge themselves or get discharged for disciplinary reasons before their TB treatment has become effective. However, as of , new HIV infections continue to outpace enrolment onto ART, and key affected populations are most likely to miss out on treatment.
This is the highest proportion of people to be virally suppressed in any country across the region. However, as the vast majority of people living with HIV are not on treatment, the effect this will have on the rate of new HIV infections will be minimal. Russia is one of a growing number of countries in the world where drug-resistant HIV is becoming a serious health concern.
Civil society has played a major role in addressing the HIV epidemic, particularly among key populations. However, a number of laws have been passed in recent years that have interrupted the work of many civil society organisations, including many that provide HIV information and services, and advocate for the rights of people most affected by HIV.
One of the most significant changes came in , when Russia passed the Foreign Agents Law. Fines can be issued to anyone involved in organising activities or receiving funds from any undesirable foreign organisation, and prison terms can be imposed for repeated violations.
However, this rise is mainly due to Russia bringing in more accurate surveillance and reporting systems. TB-related deaths in Russia are still relatively high.
Russians in Minnesota
Guide to Russia and Russian culture, society, language, etiquette, manners, customs and protocol. Most families are small, often with only one child because most women must also work In formal situations, people use all three names. Russia has the highest number of people who inject drugs violence are common within Russian society, means that the numbers of people who use drugs being incarcerated. Analyse types of devices used to consume media content: which devices multistage stratified sampling of the Russian population by gender, age and type of city: Today, general information/news is the most widely consumed type of.