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Help is now available for students at schools, in group sessions or individually on, 'The key to passing Examinations'. Research shows that more students fail to pass or get lower grades not because they don't know their work, but just don't know how to tackle exams. Facts about learning and examinations 1. Misconceptions students have about exams 2. The 3 stage model - learning, revising, recalling 2.
Things that go wrong for students in exams 3. The all or nothing model - concerns 3. Facts about exams that students need to know 4. The good enough model - the answer 4. What examiners look for when they mark 5.
Developing good study habits early 5. Reinforcing good study habits 6. How we learn and remember things 6. Examiners reports - repeated concerns 7. The secret to success - being smart 7. Why students fail - avoiding the obstacles 8. Drawing up and using an exam study timetable 9. Internalization - the key to studying and exam success 9. Another is the different way in which local people and outside. These issues often frustrate. Koch provides insights into how to plan.
In Chapter 4 Koch discusses the way in which national and global politics. All over southern Africa, community-based. In the Okavango Delta of. Botswana, the ruling elite is challenging pro-poor tourism programmes that.
In many countries, including South Africa, some. This chapter explores the problems that arise from the wider. Hector Magome and Christo Fabricius Chapter 5 address the dual. The question is whether conservation objectives. Magome and Fabricius address the tension between. How is the conservation. Part 2 consists of 14 case studies that each deal with the relationship.
These case studies cover many of the. The book concludes with a set of management recommendations and. Thisfinal chapter summarizes the key management and. It also revisits the fundamental. Although not well documented, there is some evidence that elaborate resource. Traditional institutions such as headmen and.
Examples include the royal hunting preserves of the amaZulu. It is too often assumed that the traditional systems were. While it is possible that in some exceptionally richly endowed. T raditionally , people relied heavily on the abundant wild natural resources.
As a result, people in Africa generally appreciated the. Many of their systems of. Practices that were geared towards. These practices have been.
Feely , ; Kepe and Scoones, — and customs to nurture biodiversity. Food taboos were broken in times of extreme scarcity ,. Animals such as the python and. Botswana, hunter-gatherer BaSarwa were able to move around in response to.
Although many of these practices still exist,. Local institutions such as chiefs and headmen also played an important. University et al, The arrival of colonial powers in southern Africa. The colonists arrived in the Cape during the midth century and steadily. Soon after their arrival, the Portuguese, British. They would disappear into the interior for months and.
Products of the hunt,. British administrators and the wealthier settler farmers engaged in. The combined impact of these intensified. Constant hunting resulted in piles of skulls of plains. In , a Swedish botanist at the Cape named A Sparmann pointed out. Economic pressure on the land during the late. This played an important. Many invasive alien plant species and animals were brought by the colonial.
Invasive alien species such as Opuntia monacantha , deliberately. The tribal population increased rapidly as a result of the cattle revolution;. Europeans Kuper , ; Yudelman, Conflicts over land and resources. The Kruger National Park, for example, has been characterized by.
White farmers wanted game reserves to be opened for grazing,. The emergence of top-down preservation. By the early s, law-makers started realizing that natural resources would. The first signs of preservationist sentiment emerged from the ranks of. The fundamentals of community-based natural resource management 5.
Because these islands, which were used by ships plying the Cape. The proportional impact was also much higher. Because of this, early. Conservation ideologies in southern Africa were heavily influenced by. Edenic landscapes, devoid of labour and portraying peace and tranquility ,. Colonial administrators, alarmed by. In , foreign ministers representing the African colonial powers —. In its report on the conference, the T imes of London. It is necessary to go far into the interior to find the nobler forms.
It is perfectly clear that. T o some extent this process is inevitable. Commerce, moreover , discovers. It is not surprising, therefore, that men. In the early part of the century , an influential lobby of landowners, mining. But many people were excluded in the process:. Africans and poorer whites — those for whom hunting was still. Beinart argues that because whites had disproportionate political power in. South Africa, game reserves were usually located in the segregated ethnic.
People in these areas were poor and lacked political. Conservation thus became highly politicized. The colony of Rhodesia, later to become the independent states of.
Zimbabwe and Zambia, was colonized during the late 19th century by British. The preservationist laws that had been developed in the Cape Colony. In Rhodesia, tribal areas became buffer zones where subsistence and.
Angola, legislation to create formally protected wildlife areas was only passed. In Mozambique, the Banine, Zinave and Maputa,. Angola, proposals were made during the same period to create a network of. W ar in the post-colonial. In the then Basutoland, the colonial administration became very concerned. During the s, a number. Researchers made wild claims that the rangeland was to Natural resource legislation has generally failed to take into account the.
Traditional African institutions that. The cause of rural degradation was seen. The fundamentals of community-based natural resource management 7.
The main emphasis became how to restrict. In terms of the. By this time in southern Africa, the state controlled most natural resources. Protected areas were proclaimed one by one, people were. Because of this inappropriate and foreign approach to conservation,. As Abel and Blaikie point out, resource conservation in the. Government policy has created areas called national parks that. However , competing groups such as local hunter-cultivators or.
V iewed in this way , a particular national park at any moment is. The forces are contradictory and unequal,. Each is used by different groups in a. The top-down approaches of governments and the efforts of private landowners. Carnivores such as lion, leopard, cheetah and. In Namibia, South Africa and Zimbabwe, commercial game. The concept of conservancies — where.
More recently , racist policies resulted in the forced removal of people from. South Africa alone, some 3. As part of this. Timmermans, are amongst the best known in South Africa. In Botswana during the period of to , the San bushmen. Displaced people were worse off than.
Forcibly removed people shared a similar plight in that they were. They were further impoverished because of their. Resettled people were centrally and politically. Settlement areas were generally more densely. But, contrary to expectations, resettlement was also. At the same time, local people became hostile to. It is now widely accepted that the particular style of official natural. An awareness of the damaging effects of colonial. The fundamentals of community-based natural resource management 9.
The era of democratization. During the mid s, and even earlier in some cases, natural resource. New and innovative programmes, aimed at removing or reducing the. In , the W orld Wildlife Fund launched its. W ildlife and Human Needs Programme, which consists of some 20 projects. Another important milestone was the Rio Declaration in ,. These [Integrated Conservation and Development] projects. Inspired by a number of innovative projects in which rural groups were able. Africa and the rest of the world, authorities began experimenting with new.
During the mid s,. Factors catalysing the shift towards a more people-centred approach. The pressure to promote natural resource-related development in rural areas,. Development Initiatives SDIs to diversify the rural economy , notably the. All of these programmes stress the need for rural residents, previously.
Another catalyst for the change in emphasis was the lack of resources for. Rural groups started using subversion as a tactic to coerce authorities. During the early and mid s, a number of communities began. NGOs began to play an. Community forestry in Zimbabwe gained popularity because the. This same pressure from local people was spectacularly evident in the. Eastern Cape region of South Africa when, as a symbolic act of defiance staged. Mkambati reserves staged headline-grabbing invasions of the reserves.
In most countries in. The fundamentals of community-based natural resource management Political expediency and a recognition by governments that rural voters. In Zimbabwe, the government started claiming responsibility for the successes. In Namibia, communal conservancies arose, in part, because of an. In Malawi, the government adopted a policy of. For their part, conservation organizations saw community-based natural. In some cases, conservation agencies. In South Africa, the. Richtersveld and the West Coast National Parks, along with the more recent.
Land restitution in South. Africa has generally had positive spin-offs for conservation: One of the claims of. Also in the early s, social scientists began having an impact on the natural. Their key contribution was to alert ecologists and range scientists to common. The myth that common property management always led to an abuse of. The new challenge, however ,. Parties shall take measures facilitating. The protocol also calls for economic. State parties undertake to respect. Convention concerning the protection of the world cultural and natural.
Article 8j relates to safe-guarding intellectual property rights and. Signatories are obliged to develop their capacity to pursue the. The CCD encourages integrated. Its core principles are the participation of local communities,. Convention on Wetlands of International Importance especially as Waterfowl. The contracting parties note their conviction that wetlands constitute a resource. International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights. The covenant stresses the rights of all people to land and equal participation in.
The ILO Convention specifies that rights to land of indigenous people should. Dana Declaration on Mobile People and Conservation. This declaration, signed by a group of concerned individuals in April ,. It calls for mutually beneficial partnerships between. These principles call for the development of policies for protected areas that.
Man and the Biosphere MAB is an approach to conservation that allows. It enables the linking of communal lands to core. Centralized and privatized control of resources has been the. This already established strategy was strengthened by Garrett. Hardin argued that common. Partly because of frequent and chronic declines in. Central to this shift is a. CPT , which argues for the potential success of commonly.
Common property theory CPT has now become one of the foundations of. These principles were used in the. These rules are valuable and have been used to initiate conservancies on. We are, however , discovering that a more rigorous and nuanced social.
Small institutions increase the efficiency and willingness to take. From a social dynamics perspective,. The intent has never been that of a package export of. They postulate that the performance record of. CBNRM are so difficult to generalize or replicate. Each case differs in terms. Most policy-makers now accept that top-down decision-making in. It is also generally accepted that the social aspects of.
This over-concentration on the. Fortmann et al It is clear that the new , more open, approach to. Dialogue and participation is the. As Hulme and Murphree put it:. Of one thing there can be no doubt, however: Individuals or households who have rights to. Rules for using the resource or providing it to resource. Most individuals affected by the operational. Those monitoring the rules and the use of the resource are. Resource users who break the rules are likely to face. Punishments are decided by other resource users,.
Resource users and their officials have. Government supports, or at least does not. Resource use or provision, monitoring, enforcement, conflict. New problems on the horizon. More recently , however, researchers and project managers are discovering. Responses range from outright. Fabricius et al, ; Adams and Hulme, There is also a growing realization that the theoretical foundations of.
CBNRM are on shaky ground: But is predicting the. Madzwamuse and Fabricius Chapter 10 attempt this, adopting the model. Researchers, project managers and natural resource management. Policies that govern the participation of. Implementation guidelines, stipulating how to put.
Although the policy trend is towards. Beliefs about ecosystem Each ecosystem is its own case, where managers. T ypes and foci of models A variety of formal and informal models are used and. The focus is on increasing the ability to. Modes of learning Learning takes place through real-time management and. Measure of success Success is measured against multiple criteria and is, over.
Measure of failure F ailure is, to some degree, inevitable because of multiple. The state will always have a role in natural resource management. Officials remain poorly equipped to deal with a. Donor funds are sometimes used to prop up bureaucracies. The importance of spirit. This happens when decisions about resource.
The assumption that local people,. The engagement of local people in biodiversity conservation. The lack of meaningful devolution of authority and the lack of. Conflicts within communities abound, ranging. Many of these conflicts are not. Elites attempt to get hold of an unfair. Newly formed institutions can also become co-opted by.
It is becoming apparent that the term. But they also do not fit the development. Khomani San, for example,. Koch expands on this theme in Chapter 4. The benefits from formal, project-. Most of the formal community-based tourism and wildlife. Non-financial benefits, on the other hand, are more valued. Local institutions are often weak and unstable, or. Furthermore, the amount of effort and resources required to. New elites, for example, often try their. The much promoted partnerships between.
These days local people are as keen as most other citizens. This has profound implications for capacity development in rural. This aspect is dealt with in more detail by Koch in Chapters. Community-based natural resource management programmes. Botswana, in the past decade.
Eagerly embracing the theory and. However , there have been few examples of long-term success of. The assumptions underlying the. CBNRM is not the answer and other development pathways or conservation. Culture is intricately bound up with the use and management of natural.
Local and traditional knowledge often. T raditional institutions have, over many generations, developed techniques to.
Many of these rules are. Traditional customs constantly change, however , in. In many instances, donors have stepped in to augment the existing capacity.
In water resources management, facilitators are strengthening. Local people, more often than not,. This failure by outsiders to understand. Magome and Fabricius provide a more extensive discussion of. Local people and external role players government and NGOs also engage. This is where the development industry is investing most of its.
Examples of this type of natural. Swiderska, and agricultural development schemes Andrew et al, Many of these initiatives were started. Chapter 17 as a way of protecting threatened natural resources outside.
In other instances, governments. Understanding how people gain access to natural resources is important. Leach et al developed a. Local people are constantly in search of power and control. Resource management initiatives at any point in time can only claim to work.
A second feature of the entitlements. Leach et al, These mechanisms act like catalysts that convert ecosystem.
These transforming structures and institutions are of particular relevance. At any point in time, the key criterion for success is whether local. The problem with the environmental entitlements approach is that it portrays. This is exactly what Murphree warns. Analytically , this is convenient as it enables us to set criteria and.
What, in the light of our own criteria, is judged as static or. Our predetermination of goals can never. This explains why many local.
The core elements of people—natural resource relationships. A diversity of landscapes, livelihood assets and. Local people are involved in the planning and implementation. Ownership or at least legally recognized and secure use rights. Both short-term and long-term incentives exist to help promote.
Benefits accrue to those community members who make a. Management, regulation and decision-making occur at the local. Management systems incorporate local traditions and. The state respects local-level control and enables and. Facilitation and conflict management: Mechanisms exist to manage conflicts,. These are the codes of conduct, rules and norms that govern local. As will be shown later ,. One of the key differences between. CBNRM and other natural resource-based enterprises is its focus on.
CBNRM is truly about keeping as many options as. The adaptive renewal cycle Gunderson and Holling, is a useful. Local people in southern Africa have discovered, over many.
Furthermore, they have developed strategies to. Gunderson and Holling, These include using fire and ritual hunting to. Maintaining a diversity of opportunities, or options, in the system. This increases flexibility and maintains the ability. Traditional communities used the strategy of investing in diversity. Political surprises can take the form of conflicts, local. When this adaptive ability is neutralized, eg by prohibiting consumptive use. Participation is generally believed to be a good thing in development theory.
The user is typically. Pretty et al highlighted. At the least participatory end of the. As authority gets transferred and the locus of control shifts from. Project managers and officials need. T ype of participation Description. Unilateral announcement without any listening to. The information being shared belongs. People do not have the opportunity. External agents define both problems and. Does not concede any share in decision-.
Does not tend to be at early stages of project cycles or. Initially dependent upon external initiators and. Involves interdisciplinary methodologies, multiple. Pretty et al The shift in power and delegation of responsibilities requires much more. CBNRM is not a cheap or low-key option.
High-quality , light-touch facilitation. Dictatorships, though highly effective for a while, inevitably lead to. But analysts are not. Barrow and Fabricius conclude that natural resources must. The ground rules have changed: The lessons of history are that new mechanisms of natural.
The reality is that most, if not all,. CBNRM is multifaceted and involves an integration of different. In a typical village, for example, private and communal. Moreover , a particular resource for. Communities can be functionally identified in several ways through the. The participatory approach advocated. W orking with communities requires. Donors and project managers are beginning to realize that it does not. If the groupings within a community and. Different villages are, nevertheless, often.
This fluidity does not apply only to geographical communities, but also. In the Mkambati area, Kepe, Cousins and. Tu rner identified seven groupings who earned their livelihoods in. There is also a tendency to define communities along geographic. A geographic definition of boundaries was used that did not. This roused dormant disputes. There is often the assumption that the greater the material benefit, the wiser.
This has, however , been refuted in. Incentives motivate communities and other. Incentives also encourage local residents to engage in. It is, however , comparatively easy to get people interested in a. CBNRM initiative at the start — they often attend meetings and show an. Ongoing interest and participation is a different matter ,. CBNRM enables a level of flexibility and adaptability that is.
The BaSarwa in the Okavango. Delta, for example, rely on natural resources to cope in an environment that. In addition to the material incentives to participate, there are many. In participatory monitoring programmes, communities often voluntarily select. Zimbabwe, the T onga believe that natural resources need to be used and.
Thus, people are primarily motivated by several incentives, whether a push. These benefits can be. In reality , the. But if the beneficiaries are uncertain about their future,. Gear owners, who carried the legal responsibility ,.
The emphasis on tangible benefits can, however , create unexpected. Village Beach Committee members in Malawi, for example, refuse. Ashley documented a number of intangible benefits to communities.
These benefits can broadly be grouped into four main categories. During a project evaluation, members of the West Caprivi. Conservancy Management Committee were asked: Their unanimous response was: This knowledge is constantly evolving and is embedded in. One important characteristic of traditional knowledge is that it. Why is local and traditional knowledge important? Local knowledge is mostly undocumented and is. The BaSarwa, for example, have developed elaborate.
These systems include flexibility in their livelihood strategies. They elect different leaders for different tasks and use wildlife, plant and soil. They know how to use fire to attract. The T onga of Zimbabwe believe that an abundance of natural resources. Capacity-building and Improved institutions and organizations. More open processes for making decisions and sharing. Greater equality for weaker community members,. Greater self-belief and an increased sense of control.
More secure livelihoods Diversification and risk reduction. Enhancement of cultural Revival of traditions and traditional knowledge. Improvements to the Better management when communities and the. The T onga believe that one should only hunt as much. Disregarding this rule would cause the lion spirit to take revenge,.
Certain animals — for example, eland and elephant. T raditional knowledge constitutes a wealth of experience about. Local people think and act across sectoral or disciplinary divides. This puts local knowledge at the forefront of. Local users can detect and respond to changes in ecosystems much. They also know about fine-grained changes, such as early warnings of soil. Local knowledge is a rich store of historical information about ecosystem.
This history is primarily unavailable in documented form, and will be. Local knowledge is one of the few sources of information about the cultural. One of the limitations of traditional ecological knowledge is that its. In many instances, this local context does not take into. Dwesa, local people are unaware that the indigenous forest and shellfish.
Palmer et al, In Botswana, the communities in the Okavango Delta. In southern Africa, at least, traditional knowledge is seldom linked to. Where this hierarchical linkage does exist —. Namibian community conservancies see Chapter 13 — then the effect on. There is, however, an increasing number of exceptions where.
There is, however , growing consensus that the traditional knowledge base. The youth are not always interested in traditions and take. Many young people want to get out of rural. Globalization and consumerism have found their way into remote rural. They also decides to what extent and. While the pace of change at the policy level is much slower than local.
Thirdly , government is often the main facilitator. The Namibian government, for. However , many of the case studies in this volume have demonstrated the. While legislative reforms in southern Africa have been substantial and are still. In particular , the. Community wildlife management in southern Africa seems to be characterized.
In an analysis of conflict. Conflict managers widely accept that the. According to conflict management. When all of the parties are doing well, the potential for. When perceptions are non-evaluative, conflicts tend to remain. Many natural resource managers were and still are , for example, highly. Communities, on the other hand,. Low levels of conflict are associated with open and.
The association of state-driven natural resource management. Conflicts remain low when problem-solving tactics. Over the past century, strategies. Communities tended to respond to unjust treatment by government with.
It is important to distinguish. Organizations are groups of. The decentralization debate has led to a greater recognition of the.
This was mainly precipitated. Stable and lasting institutions are the backbone of common property. Lesotho, traditional institutions administered by chiefs and headmen regulate. In southern Africa, many local institutions are not geared towards a. Decisions are either made. Lake Malawi see Chapter This important reality is often misunderstood.
A critical review of the historical, conceptual and global background of. CBNRM, such as has been conducted in this chapter , is essential in order to. We need to recognize that this relationship is.
Objectivity in CBNM is a myth —. These agendas need to find common ground around five issues that all. If strategies can be developed around these five common strategic areas, then. In exploring and intervening in this relationship between people and.
The new order sees people and natural resources as part of the. The end result will, hopefully , one. Juta and Co, Cape Town. Ashley , C Intangibles Matter: Non-Financial Dividends of Community-Based. Natural Resource Management in Namibia. Report for the W orld Wildlife Fund. The utilization of wild meat in eastern and. Local Participation in Tree. Research Paper No 8 in the series Community. Conservation Research in Africa: Principles and Comparative Practice.
Southern African Studies 15 2: Conflict and reconciliation in. People, Policies and Practice. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Evaluating Eden Discussion Paper No International Institute for Environment. Performance of Community Conservation. James Currey , Oxford, pp— Bonner R At the Hand of Man: Carney , D ed Sustainable Rural Livelihoods: What Contribution Can We.
Department for International Development, London. African Studies 15 2: Africans, wildlife protection and. African Studies Review 23 3: A synthesis of knowledge. Proceedings of a symposium on policy making.
Conservation and Mobile Indigenous Peoples: Berghahn Books, Oxford, pp— International Institute for Environment and Development, London. Social and Ecological Systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, pp— Community-based natural resource management in southern. Ghai, D Conservation, Livelihood and Democracy: Environmental Changes in Africa , Discussion Paper
Verocy Real Estate, GWERU
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