Hemp is often confused with marijuana, but is certainly not the same, An important Empire wellness offers CBD hemp flowers that can legally be shipped to a. Tweedle Farms grows full spectrum, terpene rich, high CBD organic hemp flowers that contain under % Δ9-THC and are legal in all 50 states. Jul 27, Dear Stoner: I want to try my hand at making CBD-extracted products. Most cannabidiol (CBD) users and product-makers use industrial hemp, because it’s easier to grow legally and naturally higher in CBD cannabinoids than most flowering marijuana plants, which generally have more.
metal twisted cbd flowers hemp
With a pre rolled cone, rolling up is as easy as stuffing and puffing. Buy pennywise weed strain on Hello Ganja online today! The high CBD cannabis strain Pennywise is an indica that has four differing phenotypes.
Lucky for you, this premium batch of CBD flower is comprised of very nicely trimmed green and purple nugs. Proudly created with Wix. RAW Organic Hemp Cones are made for both people who smoke a lot, and people that want an easier way to roll. Smoking CBD joints opens new doors for those who enjoy the act of smoking without the hassle of having to roll their own joint. We produce the state's highest quality CBD cones, tinctures, cartridges, salves, tea, mints and we're always expanding our product line.
Hemp oil is derived from the seeds of the hemp plant - typically industrial hemp. Low to High Price: All CBD crystals are laboratory tested for residuals and potency. Our CBD joints are made using industrial hemp flower, which contain less than 0. The Cannabidiol CBD used is of the purest form, ranging from No artificial flavors or additives. Buy four and get one free. The Rick Simpson oil is a full spectrum plant extract of potent cannabis. Our life-long passion for hemp and the healing benefits of the cannabis plant drives everything we create here at Green Buddha Hemp Co.
All our hemp is organically grown and CO2 extracted. Make sure to TAG us on social! We have hemp foods available now with more on the way, both made in New Zealand and the best from around the world. Cbd Hemp Oil Bottle.
Green Buffalo Estates co-creates the highest-quality organically-grown super-foods in the world. The flavors are original, mint, strawberry, cotton candy, chocolate and pineapple. Buy with Purchase this product now and earn 20 Cannabox loyalty points! All of our products are made in the USA and are tested and backed by reliable lab reports.
Both marijuana and hemp are forms of cannabis. A few months ago i smoked a couple of cones of weak bush bud and it was absolutely wonderful, really high and no anxiety at all, which i think may have been high in CBD due to what ive read of land race strains being high in CBD. Since they are coming from different strains hemp and cannabis , they naturally contain different amounts of cannabinoids.
An acre of hemp produces gallons of oil, 3 tons of protein, and 30 tons of fiber a year. Commonly, it refers to bud. Industrial hemp typically contains far less cannabidiol than high-resin, CBD-rich cannabis, and huge amounts of skimpy hemp foliage are required to extract a small amount of CBD.
At our online marijuana shop, Cannabis. Made with organic Hemp. These High Hemp Organic Wraps are made entirely from hemp leaves and fibers and contain the naturally occurring cannabinoid cannabidiol, or CBD.
It is a cold-pressed hemp oil made out of hemp seeds and enriched with natural CBD extract — Cannabidiol. We offer several different types of CBD products to help with your needs and preferences. Available Soon in all 50 States! Now accepting purchase orders. Grown Hemp Flower Hemp Flower contains less than. This oil is made out of legal hemp strains and contains a cocktail of cannabinoids.
All Hemp Flower is compliant with the Farm Bill. The paper is a light Brown natural color. Green Buddha Hemp Co. This product uses full-spectrum hemp oil and has less than 0. PurBlend Science is committed to complete compliance with FDA regulations and as such, we make no claims as to any benefits for products containing CBD cannabidiol.
Original raw Cones Wiz Kahlifa king size are perfectly pre-twisted joints with filter, just fill and smoke. Hemp oil is often marketed as a cooking oil …Cannalina Challenge Cone - 3 Ounce. Direct from Farm to Table. Smoke Like a King. Because its made of hemp, these cones burn extra slow and extra clean. Fast nationwide shipping and distribution. RAW cones use a water-based gum that takes a long time to dry. NuLeaf Naturals firmly believes that our organic CBD oil may improve the lives of individuals suffering from certain mental and physical ailments.
January 9, admin Marijuana Medical Benefits I started my own personal care line of CBD products. As a result of the Triple Dip flavouring system, you will get a consistent tasty draw on with each puff.
Please let us know how it goes and what you discover in terms of serving sizes, applications and results. Contains about mg of CBD. Mood Enhancement, Relaxation, Sleep aid, Calmness, Stress relief, intensification of Euphoric vibes and an increase of overall wellness. Relieve, restore and regenerate with Straight Hemp Full Spectrum Hemp Oil, made of full spectrum hemp extract and organic hemp seed oil.
Raw Papers and Cones. RAW is known for their signature watermark that was designed to give the user a smooth, even smoke unlike any other. They do not contain any THC. Buy CBD hemp flower online. Cyclones Hemp Cones is made from all natural hemp. A wide variety of hemp plastic containers options are available to you, such as free samples. Premium Additive mg. Our smooth coating of terpene-rich CBD oil tastes better, burns slower.
Find the best cbd oil for anxiety and depression here. This natural hemp makes a very thin and light tan cone tip. Each tube contains two mg cones. February 1 at Hemp is often confused with marijuana, but is certainly not the same, An important difference between the two is that industrial hemp contains. We offer all the top brands, styles, and sizes including traditional builds and cones. The hemp used in these cones contains less than 0.
Our hemp cones come straight from our organically grown field in Silverton, OR. Order marijuana for delivery or pick up from the best dispensaries near you! North Carolina farmers look to grow hemp as a summer and autumn crop, and that timing is very bad for marijuana growers, especially outdoor marijuana growers.
Mar 18, Fusion's exclusive smokable hemp cones are a relaxing way to enjoy your hemp intake. Pair large text with an image to give focus to your chosen product, collection, or blog post. CBD Wormfix Rx worm. Leave the search box empty to find all products, or enter a search term to find a specific product. Our clones are available in sizes ranging from 98 to 50, units — No order is Pre-rolled cone containing 1 gram of the finest quality hemp flowers.
Grown Industrial Hemp containing less than. Our pre-rolled cones contain one gram of some of the highest quality high CBD hemp flower available. This paper is made of Pure Hemp pulp that is Unbleached. As our flowers come towards the end of its run, we were left with a lot of smaller buds!
Med Cone mg. Browse Wishlist The product is already in the wishlist! Snoop Dogg G Pro 2. We review every brand we can find online or in shops. With 75 mg per roll, this Cherry Wine strain hemp flower is a powerful delivery of anxiety and pain relief. Add details on availability, style, or even provide a review. Enjoy your favorite smoke in its purest form, try new RAW natural rolling papers and experience the difference.
At JustCBD,We firmly believe that purer is better, which is why all of our oils and concentrates are packaged inAs our flowers come towards the end of its run, we were left with a lot of smaller buds!
A beautiful green wonder to behold! Effective Marketing for Cannabis Entrepreneurs With so many restrictions on where they may advertise, how can those in the canna-business get their names out there? Doing so takes a bit of extra creativity. Smart marketers know it costs far less to keep repeat customers than it is to attract new ones. Repeat customers also help build brand-name recognition because they often recommend businesses they love to their friends and family.
Nothing creates more trust among potential new customers than a recommendation from someone they personally trust. Medical cannabis businesses have an advantage here: Whenever a new patient registers at a dispensary, they are often asked to provide a preferred contact method consisting of email, text, or phone.
Cannabis business owners can then use those specific contact methods to blast announcements of special deals and offers directly to their patients. To attract new customers, businesses can extend "bring a friend" special deals right to the populace they already serve. Cannabis information sites allow the placement of website banners and ads that catch the eye of those interested in medical cannabis. For a modest fee, some websites will even create an entire marketing campaign including sending regular emails to consumers.
This win-win solution allows cultivators and dispensaries to focus on creating better strains and products instead of spending their limited time running their own email and text campaigns. The federal status of cannabis coupled with conflicting state laws creates challenges for those in the cannabis marketing community.
However, with a bit of innovation, it is possible to build engaging advertisement campaigns that do not run afoul of the law. This article was contributed by Kacey Bradley. State-funded universities follow state law — except when it comes to cannabis. This means real consequences for students. It need not be so. Elsewhere, medical marijuana won in nearby Missouri and in Mormon-controlled, deep-red Utah. As the experience of every other state to embark on the marijuana legalization path shows, it will be quite a while before cannabis is available in Michigan stores to those of us without a medical-marijuana recommendation, at least; Detroit is replete with medical cannabis dispensaries and looks likely to remain so.
But if the administrators at state-funded Michigan State University have anything to do with it, nothing will change at all — not now, and not in the future. Marijuana legalization does not apply on campus. Defying Davies carries severe consequences: He warned of outright dismissal from school should they defy his will by exercising newfound rights under state law.
How can they do this? The short answer is because they can — and everyone else is doing it. As Inside Higher Ed reported, college campuses in Colorado, California, Oregon, Maine, Massachusetts, and everywhere else marijuana has been legalized have declared themselves marijuana legalization-free zones. The slightly longer answer is that universities receive federal funding and thus have to follow federal law, under federal drug-free acts cited by MSU.
These are the same laws that employers often cite when justifying failing to hire or outright firing employees or potential hires for using cannabis. Police departments are a good example. Local police departments apply for and receive federal funding in the form of grants, and often take advantage of federal money to pay for equipment. And local police departments enforce… local law, which — in states like California, Colorado, and now Michigan — says that marijuana is legal for adults 21 and over.
To date, not a single police department has reported losing federal funding because it did what it is chartered to do — that is, follow state law. Airports may provide a clearer example for universities to follow, should they so choose.
Denver International Airport has declared itself a marijuana-free zone. Other airports have not — and in either case, if a passenger boarding a flight is found to have any quantity of marijuana, regular procedure for Transportation Security Administration officials is to call local law enforcement.
Not the feds, not the military, not the Space Force. Why are colleges different? Like airports, they are state-chartered institutions, funded primarily by a state. Someone caught breaking the law on a college campus may be subject to arrest by either campus or local police—in either case, law enforcement chartered by a state entity or government. If arrested, they will be tried in state court. If convicted of a serious enough offense, they will go to a state prison.
See the pattern here? Of course you do. So do the colleges, which is why they are choosing to fall back on federal law to justify their retrograde and anachronistic policies — which are in turn causing students real harm.
But they can punish a student with consequences that are. They can eject them from campus housing. They can take away their student loans, their work-study stipend — and they can kick them out of school. And that — for reasons that are spurious and utterly dishonest — is something that colleges appear totally fine with. It is possible that these hard-line stances are merely preemptive cover-your-ass moves university presidents feel they need to take to keep the feds away.
That may be so. In which case, this is merely a demonstration of moral cowardice rather than draconian evil. Neither is much to be proud of. Is the next center of marijuana production in California former flower farms in Monterrey County, is it hoop-houses enjoying ocean breezes in Santa Barbara — or is it neither? Prior to marijuana legalization, one line of frequently repeated conventional wisdom in certain cannabis circles was that once prohibition ended, The End Times would soon follow.
In California, that means the land in least demand, which means the desert or the agricultural communities of the Central Valley, where cannabis would become a complement to the oceans of pistachios, almonds, stone-fruits, and other commodities produced by industrial agriculture.
It was a compelling thesis, and there was some credible evidence — wholesale marijuana prices were indeed dropping and some of those farms were going out of business, and some old growers who could still make the nut financially were left out on technicalities, after they found that their unconventional arrangements disqualified them for state permits — but these arguments suffered from a few flaws.
First, beside the fact that such an enterprise was completely impractical, there was never any credible evidence that tobacco companies, Soros, Monsanto, or any combination of the three were plotting a land-grab of remote, hard-to-access, harder-to-develop-into-industrial agriculture former timber land in Trinity County. Second, the thing about cheap land in California is that it is cheap for a reason. At one point, according to one estimate, there were roughly 55, marijuana cultivators of various sizes in the Emerald Triangle, meaning if Santa Barbara wants to be the next best home for cannabis cultivation, there needs to be an extended period of growth, and proof that it can be sustained.
The truth is that everybody is still figuring out exactly what will work — and nobody can say with certainty what that will be. Which is to say it may matter very much exactly where a cannabis flower is grown, in the same way that it matters extremely to the market and to the palette if a grape comes from Napa County, or just a few hillsides away in Solano County.
And there are considerations far more earthly to consider. It could also be that the impractical Central Valley could become lucrative if local governments make it so. That works in most agricultural industries, but only so far. Wine is an object lesson yet again. Cannabis may not be quite as picky — especially with indoor growing — but indoor growing is costly, and the cannabis plant is a more fickle mistress than some growers realize.
It has yet to be proven beyond doubt that massive, mold, and pest-resistance high-quality cannabis can be grown reliably at scale. Like a snow globe just snatched from the shelf and given a furious shake, the image of large-scale marijuana farming is hazy and unclear and has yet to coalesce and to settle. Inside the Mormon Medical Marijuana Caravan. Harris is a Las Vegas-based herbalist, medical cannabis advocate, mother of nine, and lifelong member of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.
She discovered cannabis through her work as an herbalist and has dedicated much of the last four years to educating the conservative Mormon community about it. Utah patients have continually found her through Church networks and made their way unsolicited to Harris seeking help and guidance. Meanwhile, legislators in Utah are working diligently and quickly to undo a voter-backed medical cannabis ballot initiative that passed earlier this month.
Harris understands the hesitancy in the community, she herself was completely anti-cannabis until she started to learn more about it and how it became illegal in the first place. In , she advocated for medical cannabis at the state capital in Salt Lake City with patients who had caravanned to her home in Nevada. She wants them to take into account all the suffering Utahns currently smuggling or using on trips to nearby states to craft a workable policy.
For a Latter-day Saint that is huge, that is a big deal, it is part of who we are — believing that we obey the laws of the land. It is disturbing to watch this. In states where medical cannabis is legal, many LDS patients are using cannabis with the blessings of their bishops or other Church leaders.
Let them get out of pain! That is the thing, no one has died from it and teen use has gone down. After a multi-year struggle, advocates succeeded in putting medical cannabis on the midterm ballot in Utah, where it passed despite well-funded opposition, including from the Church itself.
Now the lame duck Utah legislature plans to replace the medical cannabis bill voters approved, Proposition 2, in a special session with a legislative bill that will restrict access and potentially be non-functioning. Lawsuits are already pending. Patients in Utah are demanding a program in line with the nearby states they are currently smuggling from. As an herbalist, Harris believes cannabis should be left to the realm of herbalism not pharmaceutical medicine.
Harris has been following the negotiations and how they have been influenced by big business and is worried the new law will do nothing to stem the tide of patients being sent to her door for legal guidance in Nevada.
Raw flower would be sold in blister packs. Further, because of the nature and unaccounted for costs of the state-run central fill pharmacy proposed under the legislation, the program may be non-functional by the deadline.
Referring to an analysis done by Americans for Safe Access of the first draft of the replacement legislation that determined the program would be non-functional, these groups have advocated heavily against it. More concessions were made to the financially incentivized opposition to safe access. Utah is moving forward with cannabis policy and should create meaningful legislation rather than public messaging stunts.
This is wrong to do to people who are clearly suffering. It's an ugly situation — ugly because because we can't help these suffering Saints up in Utah. We tried to change the law so now the only choice for relief is to break the law and risk losing there Church memberships," Harris concluded.
While Asia is probably not the first place you think of when you think of marijuana legalization — and with good reason — things might be starting to change. Some Asian countries have a reputation for handing out severe punishments — ranging from fines to prison times to the death penalty — for the consumption of possession of weed.
Despite that strict history, some Asian countries are starting to consider varying levels of legalization. Newsweek recently took a look at the progress toward legalization across Asia. Legalization is still a long way away, but this is an important step, nonetheless. Ministers in the nation are also talking about decriminalizing medical marijuana. The country might also start exporting medical marijuana. For now, only medical marijuana is considered for legalization in some countries.
Recreational use seems out of the question. Until something changes, laws will remain very strict and high sentences will continued to be handed out. According to a reminder tweeted out by the Canadian government, custom officers in Singapore, for example, can request a drug test as soon as you enter the country.
Earlier this year, we told you that public support for legal weed had not reached its peak. And we were right. According to a new poll released by Gallup, public support for marijuana legalization has reached yet another high. This marks the third year in a row that public support has hit a new record.
This age group has seen the biggest increase in support in the last few years. Public support has increased rapidly in the last few years. At the same time, many states have legalized the recreational use of marijuana. This is likely not a coincidence. But a large group of supporters could be enough to sway lawmakers to propose a ballot. In , for example, public support was lower in the South and Midwest than in the East and West.
In the South, the number was only one percentage point higher. This increase could continue the streak of good news for the industry, leading lawmakers in the Midwest and South to rethink their stance on legalization — as well as efforts by cannabis companies to push their expansion efforts towards other parts of the U. Stay tuned to the Sugar Leaf for updates. The Inexact Science of Cannabis and Pregnancy. While little scientific research exists about cannabis' effects on pregnancy, breastfeeding, and babies, one thing is certain: There is plenty of conjecture about cannabis use during pregnancy but very little fact.
Despite women using cannabis for millennia during menstruation, pregnancy, childbirth, and breastfeeding, doctors and government officials have become increasingly wary of the topic. Some cite flawed studies to prove it is dangerous to the development and growth of offspring, but from a truly scientific point of view, medical professionals have very little knowledge on how cannabis use during this critical time affects real human babies. Either way, more and more women are doing it. One doctor has at least set out to understand what can be gleaned from the studies and to highlight the flaws in research available to medical professionals on the topic.
Borgelt also surveyed how dispensaries responded to calls from pregnant mothers and found major flaws in both the response from the research and medical community as well as the cannabis industry.
She says she decided to embark on these studies with the University of Denver because she identified the major gap between medical knowledge and patient practice. One day during a consultation with a pregnant mother and medical resident she says the question of whether it was safe to consume cannabis during pregnancy and breastfeeding clearly highlighted the need for the work.
She also notes a major flaw in the research; almost all of it refers specifically to the cannabinoid THC, leaving yet another gap in the study on CBD, other cannabinoids, and whole plant cannabis. As in most knowledge gaps in cannabis, there is also a large gap between medical research and the practice of how humans actually interact with cannabis and its chemical constituents.
Despite what the medical profession has to say on the topic, 15 to 28 percent of pregnant and breastfeeding mothers in and out of legal states are using cannabis. With so much uncertainty, why are they risking it? CB1 receptors are receptors in the nervous system that interact with cannabis and endogenous cannabinoids produced by the human body. The higher presence of receptors means the effects of cannabinoids would be more potent on a developing fetus or child than an adult. Borgelt says there is a potential that because THC could disrupt and interfere with proper cell signaling during the development of these neurotransmitter systems there could be an effect on fetal development.
However, there is still no definitive current research that could prove or disprove this. Borgelt says this speaks to the types of trials conducted and their limitations and points out that a lack of conclusive evidence is positive. But she says the literature does point, but not prove, to the possibility that cannabis could affect mental development, which would not become apparent until adolescent and teenage years, noting the human brain does not stop developing until the age of Borgelt agreed with Dr.
As for the effects of cannabis use during breastfeeding, Dr. Borgelt acknowledges even less is known with the available studies. While these natural cannabinoids in breastmilk are safe, Dr. Borgelt warns that very little is known about phytocannabinoids in breast milk.
What we can say is THC readily passes into the breastmilk and there are numerous studies to confirm that. When I have patients that ask about that, I will fully acknowledge our body makes its own endocannabinoids, but the exogenous are far more potent and last longer on receptor sites than what our body does normally which can influence the way the cell functions and develops. One of the primary reasons women use cannabis in pregnancy is for immediate relief of nausea. Women who are more comfortable with medical use of cannabis are more likely to view cannabis use as safer than pharmaceutical drugs that could be prescribed to women in pregnancy.
There is a historical precedent for cannabis use in pregnancy. Cannabis has been used by midwives and herbalists to treat pain during menstruation and child birth and pain, nausea, anxiety, and insomnia in pregnant women for millennia.
American and English doctors as late as the 19th century would recommend cannabis to mothers to induce and hasten childbirth. Although there are thousands of years of human experience with cannabis use during reproduction, very little formal study can point to any absolutes about effects. Melanie Dreher, currently the Dean of the Rush University Medical Center in Chicago and previously the Dean of Nursing at the University of Iowa College of Nursing, conducted a series of studies that are considered the most thorough studies of cannabis use in pregnant and breastfeeding mothers.
She followed mothers in rural Jamaica already regularly using real cannabis during pregnancy and breastfeeding, and the development of their children over time. The neonates of heavy-marijuana-using mothers had better scores on autonomic stability, quality of alertness, irritability, and self-regulation and were judged to be more rewarding for caregivers. Real longitudinal studies that account for a host of confounding factors like other substance use, nutrition, genetic conditions, wellness and socioeconomic status are necessary to prove if there are negative side effects to development or growth of human offspring.
While Borgelt encourages doctors to err on the side of caution, she acknowledges these flaws in research and suggests doctors keep an open mind so that doctors can get honest dialogue with their patients. The Birth of the Marijuana Megastore?
While Cannabis is legal in Las Vegas, finding a place to use it is another story. Consuming weed in a public place or car is illegal, as is smoking it in your hotel, unless you have the explicit permission of the owner — which none have reportedly granted as of the time of this writing.
The only option for using pot in Las Vegas is knowing — or finding someone — who will let you smoke your weed or eat your edibles on their private property. But while finding a place in Vegas to take a hit can be a bit of a drag, shopping for weed there is not. The city is now home to Planet 13, a new dispensary that sells flowers, edibles, and concentrates.
Planet 13 is just like any other dispensary in the country except that it is absolutely enormous. When all phases are completed, the mega-store will total , square feet — more than enough to handle thousands of customers daily. The Next Big Thing? The LED lights, outdoor water feature, interactive floor, and other experiences are, of course, perfect for Las Vegas, but would likely be a little much for smaller cities or towns.
But, hey, next time you're in Vegas, be sure to check out Planet And we wish you best of luck in trying to find a place to enjoy your stash once you do. The sad case of Patrick Beadle, the Portland, Oregon resident sentenced to eight years in prison for driving through Mississippi with medical marijuana he obtained legally, illustrates how far most places have to go on cannabis.
Talley is a year-old barber. In through the open portal swarmed four SWAT officers in full tactical gear, fingers on the trigger of their assault weapons, the weapons pointed square at Talley.
They also found plastic bags and three digital scales, though Talley claimed to own only one, and it was broken. Talley was nonetheless put in handcuffs and taken to county jail on suspicion of committing a misdemeanor — possession of marijuana. To defense attorneys and retired law enforcement, they are much worse. They are violations of the Fourth Amendment that also jeopardize the health and safety of the public.
And yet, they have happened dozens and dozens of times, to dozens and dozens of other people like Talley. In eight others, they found only marijuana despite obtaining a search warrant for harder drugs. The city is 42 percent black and 46 percent white. Sometimes, the occupants of the raided homes are evicted, or charged by their landlords for the damage caused by police.
And then they do it again — and again and again. Another individual, a registered legal gun owner, had his weapon seized, was charged for it, and was evicted from his apartment. The problem — for police — is that they also appeared to have lied.
We know that is all untrue, because Talley set up a video security system outside his apartment following a few thefts which were never solved by police.
And that video footage contradicts the account to which police swore in their affidavit signed off by a judge. To date, that has not resulted in any punishment for the police or compensation for Talley, who waged a one-man campaign for many months, obtaining public records and using social media to spread the news of his case. How many people like Talley are set up without the exculpatory power of a home security system?
In how many other cities is there a SWAT team happy to stage raids suitable for cartel kingpins for a few scraps of weed? The answers are obvious and depressing, and illustrate the broader truth: Dispensaries have always targeted men. If they want to beat the competition, however, they need to market to women, too. But with an increasing number of states legalizing the recreational use of marijuana — and public support for legalization continuing to rise — a longtime truth has become more widely recognized: Women like weed, too.
While everyone is different — and some women likely smoke more weed than the average man — there are some generally recognized differences between male and female pot consumption. Men, for example, typically prefer high-potency weed, which allows them to get high quickly, while women often want to be more discreet — especially when they feel like they could be judged by others for using weed.
As a result, women are more likely to be interested in products like lotions with CBD, low-THC buds, edibles, and vape pens. Not surprisingly, marijuana-related businesses have noticed these differences, with weed marketing strategies looking more and more like those of beauty products. By appealing more directly to women, dispensaries will likely not only increase their bottom lines, but they could also be playing a significant part in the normalization of weed.
Over time, women picking up kids from play dates will feel as comfortable talking to each other about their favorite weed-infused products as they will talking about the weather. Over the years, researchers have discovered the power of marijuana to help people suffering from myriad health conditions.
The symptoms of this disease can be very incapacitating for patients, sometimes stopping them from holding down jobs or having a social life — or both. According to a new study, however, cannabis could offer relief to patients dealing with this frustrating condition.
Some were given cannabis oil, others a placebo. Marijuana has been shown to reduce the number of epileptic episodes — especially among children. It can also be used to reduce pain, which is appealing for multiple sclerosis or arthritis patients. It can also relieve nausea in chemotherapy patients. While there are plenty of weird places to grow weed, outer space now tops our list.
Cannabis and hemp cultivators Atalo Holdings and Anavii Market — also based in Kentucky — decided to partner with Space Tengo to send some ganja plants to a galaxy far, far away. The microwave-sized boxes are actually clean room laboratories that will be used by ISS scientists to grow and observe the plants. So, what can we learn from weed grown in outer space? Growing weed in a low-gravity environment sounds like fun, but is it useful?
According to pharmacy professor Joe Chappell of the University of Kentucky, it is. The goal is to see how the plant reacts to this low-gravity environment, and how that could be useful for humankind. England's legalization of medical marijuana has been a predictable process, with at least one minor-sounding — yet very significant — deviation.
On November 1, medical cannabis becomes legal in the United Kingdom. This is a technically true statement. There will be no flood of pain patients, cancer sufferers, and everyone else for whom medical marijuana can bring relief to dispensaries and clinics. Exactly what those products will be, when they will become available, for whom and how easily — and how expensive — all remains to be seen.
All those very important details will be hammered out over the next year, with exact answers to be determined. It will also sound familiar in Canada and Australia, two former British Commonwealth countries that have also moved more quickly. But there is at least one minor-sounding yet very significant deviation from this otherwise predictable script. All those entrepreneurs, the founders and the funders, want to be seated at the literal and metaphorical table, when members of the government and Parliament sit down with stakeholders and figure out how to get cannabis to the public.
There is a desire to make sure that patients get in first before the industry. At one-third the population of the United Kingdom, Florida is nonetheless an enormous market for cannabis, with an aging population that includes a significant number of military veterans.
There, medical marijuana was approved by voters, but then dictated by lawmakers in consultation with health-department officials. It should not go unsaid that those health officials work for Gov. Rick Scott, himself a healthcare-industrial complex tycoon. A ban on marijuana that could be smoked. A ban on home cultivation, forcing patients to go to capitalized companies for access to a plant. So few licensed dispensaries and cultivators that it equated to a state-sanctioned monopoly.
A byzantine permitting process that gave preferential treatment to farms that had once grown citrus fruits. Some of these restrictions have been overturned by the courts, but the fact that the courts had to be involved at all should be proof enough that the laws were imperfect and unworkable.
It should surprise nobody that the imperfections were put there by someone other than the patients for whom the laws were intended. They would do so if they listened to pain doctors in charge of prescribing pharmaceutical alternatives to cannabis, which — according to the literature, is effective for pain. It would be bad. While Germany has made some progress as far as cannabis legalization is concerned, the number of Germans who can legally obtain the drug is rather limited, as are the chances that that number will increase any time soon.
Berlin, for example, is known for its party scene. Getting — or getting away with — marijuana may be technically possible in Germany, but growing it is not. If a company wants to grow medical cannabis in Germany, they have to apply for a license with the cannabis agency of the Federal Institute for Drugs and Medical Devices.
The agency has yet to grant any licenses, however, leaving Germany to import all of its cannabis from the Netherlands and Canada. But how is this stereotype affecting legit businesses and what can companies do to break free?
In movies and on television, it seems every ensemble cast features some sort of lovable stoner. Chill, but lacking in motivation and general wherewithal, we all know the type. But now that weed is legal in some capacity in 30 states, the idea of the video game-loving, fast-food devouring stoner is proving bad for business. Dispelling the Stigma Across the country, marijuana companies are seeking out new and creative ways to shake off the stoner stereotype and present cannabis as the ticket to pain relief and recreation for people of all walks of life.
For some companies, this comes across in more effective branding and marketing techniques — leveraging billboards and ads portraying nurses, doctors, grandparents, and more as responsible cannabis users instead of stoners.
Other brands have set their sights on product design to add a more refined air to their weed products — ridding packaging of pot leaves in favor of sleek, modern designs. Thanks in large part to decades of criminalization, cannabis still has a reputation of the drug of choice for characters on the fringes of society, especially in movies and on television.
Fast forward a few decades, and TV shows and movies are starting to show pot users in a more realistic light. As the image of the half-baked, goofy stoner are replaced with real-world representations of weed users, the tide of common opinion is sure to change. Can Pot Prevent Performance Anxiety? If you count yourself as part of this statistic — fear not! Cannabis may help make your next performance a total breeze.
And your big speech is only a few hours away. Sure, you could freak out. Or you could enjoy a little cannabis and knock it out of the park. According to a recent study published in the Brazilian Journal of Psychiatry, using cannabis prior to public speaking can reduce performance anxiety, as well as symptoms of daily, general anxiety.
Participants were given mg, mg, or mg, and a placebo at random and then asked to give a 4-minute speech. Doctors assessed anxiety markers before, during, and after the speeches, and the findings were promising. Participants who received a mg CBD dose showed lower anxiety levels compared to those who received the placebo. Embracing the Benefits Based on these recent findings, people struggling with anxiety may have a truly effective option for managing symptoms.
In the United States, that means roughly And, yes, it may make your next presentation more bearable, too. All jokes aside, studies like this one are proving tremendously valuable in further identifying the medical benefits of cannabis. As more applications are identified, more work may be done to legalize medicinal cannabis across the country. Recreational weed might not be too far behind. Recreational cannabis consumption is still prohibited, however. There are several ways to initiate the legalization of marijuana.
In the United States, states have put it up for a vote, leaving it up to the residents to decide. Lawmakers can also create new acts of law, allowing the medical use of marijuana. In Mexico, however, several lawsuits have been filed over the last few years, as MerryJane. Five consistent rulings by the Mexican Supreme court are necessary before the judgment can be applied to all residents. Three rulings have been issued so far, which will likely put some pressure on the government.
When will it be legal? While the people of Mexico will probably have to wait until at least to see some real change, things are moving quickly.
Many resources have to be allocated to the war against drugs — resources that could be put to better use if marijuana became legal. Can Cannabis Help You Sleep? Even the best scientists have difficulty fully understanding sleep. But with the benefits of medical marijuana becoming more widely known worldwide, an increasing number are citing the benefits of using cannabis as a sleeping aid. Whether that sleepiness is good or bad for you in the long run is unclear, however. Many people struggle with chronic pain that keeps them awake at night.
Others simply have difficulty relaxing and clearing their minds before falling asleep. Sleep aids are huge potential market, and one that an increasing number of cannabis brands will likely explore. Zzz Natural is one such brand. This could be good news for people suffering from nightmares due to PTSD, for instance. If you do begin using cannabis as a sleep aid, talk to your doctor regularly about the results, and jot down anything that could be considered a side effect.
With the spread of cannabis east of the Rockies and into the most conservative parts of America, legislators have worked to cripple the intent of these laws, limit the industry to millionaires and billionaires, and restrict access so much that most patients have largely remained criminals even in legal medical marijuana states.
Usually, the people who fight the lawmakers on crippling regulations in these states lose and the legislators mostly always win. But when medical marijuana finally made its way to Oklahoma, the law fought the people, and the people won. After covering cannabis issues nationwide, I was shocked by what I saw on a recent visit to Tulsa. Legal Oregon and Colorado are currently fighting for the right to consume socially. Legal California has added so many layers of bureaucracy to get into the legal market that most producers never moved onto it.
Did I mention Oklahoma has reciprocity? As my new Sooner State friends and I socialized around a pool table, I learned that this victory in Oklahoma had little to do with money and everything to do with the hard work and dedication of the on-the-ground activists who fought for the law. Thanks to the obstruction of then-attorney general Scott Pruitt, the initiative was not certified or titled by the state appropriately or on time, leading to a lengthy court battle that kept it off the ballot.
For most of its history, C. Hemp is one of the oldest sources of textile fiber, with extant remains of hempen cloth trailing back 6 millennia. Hemp grown for fiber was introduced to western Asia and Egypt, and subsequently to Europe somewhere between and BCE. Cultivation in Europe became widespread after ce. The hemp industry flourished in Kentucky, Missouri, and Illinois between and because of the strong demand for sailcloth and cordage Ehrensing The second world war led to a brief revival of hemp cultivation in the Midwest, as well as in Canada, because the war cut off supplies of fiber substantial renewed cultivation also occurred in Germany for the same reason.
Until the beginning of the 19th century, hemp was the leading cordage fiber. Nevertheless, the Marihuana Tax Act applied in essentially ended hemp production in the United States, although a small hemp fiber industry continued in Wisconsin until Similarly in the cultivation of Cannabis became illegal in Canada under the Opium and Narcotics Act.
Until very recently the prohibition against drug forms of the plant prevented consideration of cultivation of fiber and oilseed cultivars in Canada. However, in the last 10 years three key developments occurred: In March , new regulations under the Controlled Drugs and Substances Act were provided to allow the commercial development of a hemp industry in Canada, and since then more than a thousand licenses have been issued.
Information on the commercial potential of hemp in Canada is in Blade , Marcus , and Pinfold Consulting In the US, a substantial trade in hemp products has developed, based on imports of hemp fiber, grain, and oil.
The American agricultural community has observed this, and has had success at the state level in persuading legislators of the advisability of experimental hemp cultivation as a means of evaluating the wisdom of re-establishing American hemp production. However, because of opposition by the federal government, to date there has only been a small experimental plot in Hawaii.
Information on the commercial potential of hemp in the US is presented in the following. Cannabis sativa is extremely unusual in the diversity of products for which it is or can be cultivated. This presentation stresses the products that hold the most promise for North America, which also include a considerable range of oilseed applications Table 2; Fig. Analysis of commercial Cannabis product potential in North America in order of decreasing value toward the right and toward the bottom.
Cannabis sativa is an annual wind-pollinated plant, normally dioecious and dimorphic, although sometimes monoecious mostly in several modern European fiber cultivars. Figure 2 presents the basic morphology of the species. All-female lines are productive for some purposes e. So prolific is pollen production that an isolation distance of about 5 km is usually recommended for generating pure-bred foundation seed.
While small, secretory, resin-producing glands occur on the epidermis of most of the above-ground parts of the plant, the glands are very dense and productive on the perigonal bracts, which are accordingly of central interest in marijuana varieties. Extensive root systems are key to the ability of hemp crops to exploit deep supplies of nutrients and water.
The stems are erect, furrowed, and usually branched, with a woody interior, and may be hollow in the internodes. Although the stem is often woody, the species is frequently referred to as a herb or forb. Plants vary enormously in height depending on genetic constitution and environment Fig. This superb composite plate by artist Elmer Smith, often reproduced at a very small scale and without explanation in marijuana books, is the best scientific illustration of the hemp plant ever prepared.
Flowering branch of male plant. Flowering branch of female plant. Cluster of male flowers. Female flower, enclosed by perigonal bract. Mature fruit enclosed in perigonal bract. Seed achene , showing wide face. Seed, showing narrow face. Top of sessile secretory gland. Long section of cystolith hair note calcium carbonate concretion at base. There is great variation in Cannabis sativa , because of disruptive domestication for fiber, oilseed, and narcotic resin, and there are features that tend to distinguish these three cultigens cultivated phases from each other.
Moreover, density of cultivation is used to accentuate certain architectural features. Figure 5 illustrates the divergent appearances of the basic agronomic categories of Cannabis in typical field configurations.
Typical architecture of categories of cultivated Cannabis sativa. Degree of branching and height are determined both by the density of the plants and their genetic background. Highly selected forms of the fiber cultigen possess features maximizing fiber production. Since the nodes tend to disrupt the length of the fiber bundles, thereby limiting quality, tall, relatively unbranched plants with long internodes have been selected.
Another strategy has been to select stems that are hollow at the internodes, with limited wood, since this maximizes production of fiber in relation to supporting woody tissues. Male plants in general are taller, albeit slimmer, less robust, and less productive. Except for the troublesome characteristic of dying after anthesis, male traits are favored for fiber production, in contrast to the situation for drug strains noted below. In former, labor-intensive times, the male plants were harvested earlier than the females, to produce superior fiber.
The limited branching of fiber cultivars is often compensated for by possession of large leaves with wide leaflets, which obviously increase the photosynthetic ability of the plants. Since fiber plants have not generally been selected for narcotic purposes, the level of intoxicating constituents is usually limited.
An absence of such fiber-strain traits as tallness, limited branching, long internodes, and very hollow stems, is characteristic of narcotic strains.
Drug forms have historically been grown in areas south of the north-temperate zone, often close to the equator, and are photoperiodically adapted to a long season. When grown in north-temperate climates maturation is much-delayed until late fall, or the plants succumb to cold weather before they are able to produce seeds.
Unlike fiber strains that have been selected to grow well at extremely high densities, drug strains tend to be less persistent when grown in high concentration de Meijer Drug strains can be very similar in appearance to fiber strains. However, a characteristic type of narcotic plant was selected in southern Asia, particularly in India and neighboring countries.
This is dioecious, short about a meter in height , highly branched, with large leaves i. The appearance is rather like a short, conical Christmas tree. Until recent times, the cultivation of hemp primarily as an oilseed was largely unknown, except in Russia. Today, it is difficult to reconstruct the type of plant that was grown there as an oilseed, because such cultivation has essentially been abandoned. Oilseed hemp cultivars in the modern sense were not available until very recently, but some land races certainly were grown specifically for seeds in Russia.
Dewey gave the following information: Very recently, cultivars have been bred specifically for oilseed production. While oilseed land races in northern Russia would have been short, early-maturing plants in view of the short growing season, in more southern areas oilseed landraces likely had moderate height, and were spaced more widely to allow abundant branching and seed production to develop. Until Canada replaced China in as a source of imported seeds for the US, most seeds used for various purposes in the US were sterilized and imported from China.
Indeed, China remains the largest producer of hempseed. We have grown Chinese hemp land races, and these were short, branched, adapted to a very long growing season i. Although similar in appearance to narcotic strains of C. Although some forms of C. Such forms are typically grown at lower densities than hemp grown only for fiber, as this promotes branching, although it should be understood that the genetic propensity for branching has been selected.
Percentage or quality of oil in the seeds does not appear to have been important in the past, although selection for these traits is now being conducted.
Most significantly, modern selection is occurring with regard to mechanized harvesting, particularly the ability to grow in high density as single-headed stalks with very short branches bearing considerable seed. As detailed below, the development of hemp as a new legal crop in North America must be considered in relation to illicit cultivation, so it is important to appreciate the scope of the drug situation.
Up until the first half of the 20th century, drug preparations of Cannabis were used predominantly as a recreational inebriant in poor countries and the lower socio-economic classes of developed nations.
After World War II, marijuana became associated with the rise of a hedonistic, psychedelic ethos, first in the United States and eventually over much of the world, with the consequent development of a huge international illicit market that exceeds the value of the hemp market during its heyday.
In the Netherlands, the annual value of narcotic hemp cultivation ca. Marijuana has become the most widely disseminated illicit species in the world Schultes and Hofmann With the exception of alcohol, it is the most widely used recreational euphoric drug. Cultivation, commerce, and consumption of drug preparations of Cannabis have been proscribed in most countries during the present century.
The cost of enforcing the laws against Cannabis in North America is in the billions of dollars annually. In addition, there are substantial social costs, such as adverse effects on users, particularly those who are convicted. Tragically this includes some legitimate farmers who, faced with financial ruin because of the unprofitability of crops being grown, converted to growing marijuana. Comparative annual world economic significance of categories of Cannabis activity. A rather thorough analysis of the scope of the illicit marijuana industry in Canada for is reported at www.
At least tonnes t of marijuana were grown in Canada in , representing a harvest of 4. Impressively, the species was grown in all 50 states including outdoor seizures in every state except Wyoming! It was estimated that 8. Marijuana was judged to be the largest revenue producing crop in Alabama, California, Colorado, Hawaii, Kentucky, Maine, Rhode Island, Tennessee, Virginia, and West Virginia, and one of the top five cash crops in 29 other states.
Cannabis contains a seemingly unique class of chemicals, the cannabinoids, of which more than 60 have been described, but only a few are psychoactive. Cannabinoids are produced in specialized epidermal glands, which differ notably in distribution on different organs of the plant high concentrations occur on the upper surface of the young leaves and young twigs, on the tepals, stamens, and especially on the perigonal bract.
Given this distribution, the glands would seem to be protective of young and reproductive above-ground tissues the roots lack glands. The resin is a sticky mixture of cannabinoids and a variety of terpenes. The characteristic odor of the plant is due to the abundant terpenes, which are not psychoactive.
The more important cannabinoids are shown in Fig. In the plant the cannabinoids exist predominantly in the form of carboxylic acids, which decarboxylate with time or when heated. Technically, the euphoric psychological effects of THC are best described by the word psychotomimetic.
Cannabidiol CBD is the chief non-psychotomimetic cannabinoid. A THC concentration in marijuana of approximately 0. Some cannabinoid races have been described, notably containing cannabichromene particularly in high-THC forms and cannabigerol monomethyl ether in some Asian strains. The biosynthetic pathways of the cannabinoids are not yet satisfactorily elucidated, although the scheme shown in Fig. Proposed biosynthetic pathways of the principal cannabinoids after Pate b.
Both in Canada and the US, the most critical problem to be addressed for commercial exploitation of C. Indeed, the reason hemp cultivation was made illegal in North America was concern that the hemp crop was a drug menace. The drug potential is, for practical purposes, measured by the presence of THC. Small and Cronquist split C. This classification has since been adopted in the European Community, Canada, and parts of Australia as a dividing line between cultivars that can be legally cultivated under license and forms that are considered to have too high a drug potential.
For a period, 0. It should be appreciated that there is considerable variation in THC content in different parts of the plant. THC content increases in the following order: It is well known in the illicit trade how to screen off the more potent fractions of the plant in order to increase THC levels in resultant drug products.
Nevertheless, a level of 0. Below, the problem of permissible levels of THC in food products made from hempseed is discussed. There is a general inverse relationship in the resin of Cannabis between the amounts of THC present and the amount of the other principal cannabinoid, CBD.
In theory, therefore, low-THC cultivars do not completely solve the problem of drug abuse potential. In practice, however, the illicit drug trade has access to easier methods of synthesizing THC or its analogues than by first extracting CBD from non-drug hemp strains. THC content has proven to be more easily reduced in monoecious than in dioecious varieties. It should be possible to select THC-free strains, and there has been speculation that genetic engineering could be helpful in this regard.
As a strategic economic and political tactic, France has been attempting for several years to have the European Union EU adopt legislation forbidding the cultivation of industrial hemp cultivars with more than 0. However, the Canadian government has found that some French material has proven to be excessively high in THC. There is certainly a need to utilize available germplasm sources in order to breed suitable cultivars for North America.
A list of the 24 approved cultivars for the season in Canada is at www. Indeed, most of these are unsuitable or only marginally suitable for Canada Small and Marcus , and only a very few Canadian cultivars to date have been created. In Canada, every acquisition of hemp grown at a particular place and time must be tested for THC content by an independent laboratory and, under the industrial hemp regulations, fields of hemp with more than 0. Importation of experimental hemp lines i. The regulations require that one of the dozen independent laboratories licensed for the purpose conduct the analyses and report the results to Health Canada.
Sample collection is also normally carried out by an independent authorized firm. The Canadian system of monitoring THC content has rigidly limited hemp cultivation to cultivars that consistently develop THC levels below 0. Most germplasm stocks of hemp are in Europe, and the largest and most important collection is the Vavilov Institute gene bank in Leningrad. Figure 11 shows THC concentrations in the Vavilov collection, as well as in our own collection, largely of European germplasm.
A disturbingly high percentage of the collections have THC levels higher than 0. Frequency histograms of THC concentration in germplasm collections. Left, collection of E. Right, the collection of the Vavilov Institute, St. Soil characteristics, latitude and climatic stresses have been found to have significant effects on THC concentrations, and there are seasonal and even diurnal variations Small ; Pate b.
Practically, this has meant in Canadian experience that a few cultivars have been eliminated from further commercial cultivation because they sometimes exceed the 0. Hemp seeds contain virtually no THC, but THC contamination results from contact of the seeds with the resin secreted by the epidermal glands on the leaves and floral parts, and also by the failure to sift away all of the bracts which have the highest concentration of THC of any parts of the plant that cover the seeds.
This results in small levels of THC appearing in hempseed oil and foods made with the seeds. Although most of the western hemp-growing world uses 0. Currently, up to 10 ppm THC is permitted in seeds and oil products used for food purposes in Canada. In Germany, more stringent limits were set for food in The US Drug Enforcement Administration published new regulations on hemp in the Federal Register on October 9th that in effect 4 months later would ban the food use of hemp in the US because any amount of THC would be unacceptable in foods follow links at www.
These proposals are currently being challenged by the hemp industry. Limits have been set because of concerns about possible toxicity and interference with drug tests Grotenhermen et al.
An extensive analysis of literature dealing with the toxicity of hemp is in Orr and Starodub ; see Geiwitz for an analysis. Because hemp food products are considered to have great economic potential, there is considerable pressure on the hemp industry in North America to reduce THC levels. The Drug Enforcement Agency and the Office of National Drug Control Policy of the US raised concerns over tests conducted from to that showed that consumption of hempseed products available during that period led to interference with drug-testing programs for marijuana use.
Leson found that this level was not exceeded by consuming hemp products, provided that THC levels are maintained below 5 ppm in hemp oil, and below 2 ppm in hulled seeds. Nevertheless the presence of even minute trace amounts of THC in foods remains a tool that can be used by those wishing to prevent the hemp oilseed industry from developing.
Based on world production of fibers in , about In addition to cotton, flax is the only other significant plant fiber crop grown in temperate regions of the world kenaf has received some enthusiastic backing in the southern US in recent years, but is most cheaply produced in India, Bangladesh, and China.
Hemp fiber can potentially replace other biological fibers in many applications, but also, as noted below, can sometimes compete with minerals such as glass fiber and steel. As forests diminish, cultivation of annual plants as fiber sources is likely to increase. While crop residues like cereal straw will probably supply much of the need, specialty fiber plants such as hemp also have potential.
The four conditions that will need to be met are after Bolton Of these criteria only point 3 is adequately met at this time for hemp in North America, but this is to be expected in a crop that has only begun to be cultivated after an absence of many years. One of the reasons hemp fiber has been valued is because of its length. The core fibers are generally considered too short for high grade paper applications a length of 3 mm is considered ideal , and too much lignin is present.
While the long bast fibers have been used to make paper almost for 2 millennia, the woody core fibers have rarely been so used. Nevertheless it has been suggested that the core fibers could be used for paper making, providing appropriate technology was developed de Groot et al. In any event, the core fibers, have found a variety of uses, as detailed below. The long, lignin-poor bast fibers also have considerable potential to be used in many non-paper, non-textile applications, as noted below.
Selection for fiber has resulted in strains that have much more bark fiber tissues and much less woody core than encountered in narcotic strains, oilseed strains, and wild plants Fig. In non-fiber strains of Cannabis , bark can be less than one quarter of the stem tissues i. By contrast, in fiber strains half of the stem tissues can be bark, and more than half of this can be the desirable long primary fibers de Meijer Cross sections of stems at internodes of a fiber plant left and of a narcotic plant right.
Fiber cultivars have stems that are more hollow at the internodes, i. Other desirable features of hemp fibers are strength and durability particularly resistance to decay , which made hemp useful in the past for rope, nets, sail-cloth, and oakum for caulking. During the age of sailing ships, Cannabis was considered to provide the very best of canvas, and indeed this word is derived from Cannabis. Several factors combined to decrease the popularity of hemp in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.
Increasing limitation of cheap labor for traditional production in Europe and the New World led to the creation of some mechanical inventions, but too late to counter growing interest in competitive crops. Hemp rag had been much used for paper, but the 19th century introduction of the chemical woodpulping process considerably lowered demand for hemp.
The demise of the sail diminished the market for canvas. Increasing use of the plant for drugs gave hemp a bad image. All this led to the discontinuation of hemp cultivation in the early and middle parts of the 20th century in much of the world where cheap labor was limited. There has been renewed interest in England, Australia, and South Africa in cultivating fiber hemp. Italy has an outstanding reputation for high-quality hemp, but productivity has waned for the last several decades.
In France, a market for high-quality paper, ironically largely cigarette paper, has developed such paper is completely free of the intoxicating resin. Modern plant breeding in Europe has produced several dozen hemp strains, although by comparison with other fiber crops there are relatively few described varieties of hemp.
Since World War II, breeding has been concerned most particularly with the development of monoecious varieties. Gehl reviewed fiber hemp development in Canada in the early 20th century, and concluded that the prospects for a traditional fiber industry were poor.
However, as outlined below, there are now many non-traditional usages for hemp fiber which require consideration. Hemp long fiber is one of the strongest and most durable of natural fibers, with high tensile strength, wet strength, and other characteristics that make it technically suited for various industrial products Karus and Leson From to the EU provided the equivalent of about 50 million dollars to develop new flax and hemp harvesting and fiber processing technologies Karus et al.
Because of the similarities of flax and hemp, the technologies developed for one usually are adaptable to the other. In addition, various European nations and private firms contributed to the development of hemp technologies. Accordingly, Europe is far more advanced in hemp development with respect to all fiber-based applications than other parts of the world.
The EU currently dedicates about 30, ha to hemp production. Harvesting and processing machinery for fiber hemp is highly advanced in Europe, and some has been imported into Canada. However, there is insufficient fiber processing capacity to handle hemp produced in Canada.
Hemp is a bast fiber crop, i. Water retting has been largely abandoned in countries where labor is expensive or environmental regulations exist. Water retting, typically by soaking the stalks in ditches, can lead to a high level of pollution.
Most hemp fiber used in textiles today is water retted in China and Hungary. Retting in tanks rather than in open bodies of water is a way of controlling the effluents while taking advantage of the high-quality fiber that is produced. Unlike flax, hemp long fiber requires water retting for preparation of high-quality spinnable fibers for production of fine textiles. Improved microorganisms or enzymes could augment or replace traditional water retting.
Steam explosion is another potential technology that has been experimentally applied to hemp Garcia-Jaldon et al. Even when one has suitably separated long fiber, specialized harvesting, processing, spinning and weaving equipment are required for preparing fine hemp textiles. The refinement of equipment and new technologies are viewed as offering the possibility of making fine textile production practical in western Europe and North America, but at present China controls this market, and probably will remain dominant for the foreseeable future.
There are practical, if cruder alternatives to separate the long fiber for high-quality textile production, but in fact such techniques are used mostly for non-textile applications. Once stalks are retted, dried, and baled, they are processed to extract the fiber.
A single, relatively expensive machine called a decorticator can do these two steps as one. In North America the use of hemp for production of even crude textiles is marginal. Accordingly, the chief current fiber usages of North American, indeed of European hemp, are non-textile. Although always sold at a premium price, hemp clothing has a natural appeal to a sector of the population. Hemp clothes are resistant to abrasion, but are typically abrasive. Weaving of hemp fibers into textiles and apparel is primarily done in China, Hungary, Romania, Russia, and the Ukraine.
Processing costs are higher for industrial hemp because the fibers vary from the standard specifications for fiber length and diameter established for the equipment used in most textile and apparel factories, necessitating the use of specialty machines.
The North American hemp apparel industry today is based on fiber, yarn, and fabrics imported from Eastern Europe and China. The extraction technology and spinning facilities, to say nothing of much lower labor costs, make it very difficult for the potential development of a hemp textile industry in North America.
The fact that spinning facilities for natural fibers are so concentrated in China is making it increasingly difficult to competitively produce hemp fabrics elsewhere. This of course lessens the value-added future of growing hemp for a potential textile industry in North America. It is possible, however, that new technologies could change this situation, and especially in the EU development is underway to establish a fledgling domestic hemp textile industry. In addition to textiles used in clothing, coarser woven cloth canvas is used for upholstery, bags, sacks, and tarpaulins.
There is very little effort in North America to produce such woven products, and non-woven material Fig. Hempline in Ontario, the first firm to grow hemp for commercial purposes in North America since the second word war starting with experimental cultivation in , is the exception, and is concerned with production of fiber for upholstery and carpeting.
Multi-purpose matting, fabricated from hemp. Courtesy of Kenex Ltd. Until the early 19th century, hemp, and flax were the chief paper-making materials.
In historical times, hemp rag was processed into paper. Using hemp directly for paper was considered too expensive, and in any event the demand for paper was far more limited than today. Wood-based paper came into use when mechanical and chemical pulping was developed in the mid s in Germany and England. The pulp and paper industry based on wood has considered the use of hemp for pulp, but only on an experimental basis. Since virgin pulp is required for added strength in the recycling of paper, hemp pulp would allow for at least twice as many cycles as wood pulp.
However, various analyses have concluded that the use of hemp for conventional paper pulp is not profitable Fertig The most important specialty pulp products made from hemp are cigarette paper Fig. Other uses include art papers and tea bags.
North American capacity for hemp pulp production and value-added processing is much more limited than that of Europe, and this industry is negligible in North America. Hemp cigarette paper, the most profitable paper product currently manufactured from hemp.
Hemp paper is useful for specialty applications such as currency and cigarette papers where strength is needed. The bast fiber is of greatest interest to the pulp and paper industry because of its superior strength properties compared to wood.
However, the short, bulky fibers found in the inner part of the plant hurds can also be used to make cheaper grades of paper, apparently without greatly affecting quality of the printing surface. Hemp is not competitive for newsprint, books, writing papers, and general paper grocery bags, coffee cups, napkins , although there is a specialty or novelty market for those specifically wishing to support the hemp industry by purchasing hemp writing or printing paper despite the premium price Fig.
CBD Oil Products (Vape Juice Oil, Cartridges, E Juice & More):
Product 1 - 11 The hemp in our CBD Health Shop is ideal for creating a cannabis tincture. The hemp, which consists of flower buds, leaves and seeds, can also. CBD oil only? per bottle. In our extra large CBD shop, we provide low priced and very high quality CBD products with powerful and effective properties. Dec 13, Canni, Milwaukee's first CBD and hemp specialty shop.