Concussion (Traumatic Brain Injury) The most common and least serious type of traumatic brain injury is called a concussion. Traumatic brain injuries can cause bruising, damage to the blood vessels, and injury to the nerves. A concussion is a type of traumatic brain injury—or TBI—caused by a bump, blow , or jolt to the head or by a hit to the body that causes the head and brain to. Overview. A concussion is a traumatic brain injury that affects your brain function. Effects are usually temporary but can include headaches and.
It a living nightmare. I really appreciated your tip to rest as much as possible after you get a concussion. My daughter has a concussion after wrecking her bike. I will be sure to try and get her to rest as much as possible so that she can get better soon. My mother is 89 and fell face first on a cement bathroom floor on which she has a lump on her forehead and two black eyes. She is also having a hard time concentrating.
She was seen at the hospital and was sent home. Same thing happened to me a couple of weeks ago. Tips for recovery post concussion. I got up and felt fine afterwards and tried to laugh it off. My cousin thought I was seriously hurt cos it sounded like I literally cracked my head. I never went to the doc or hospital cos I felt fine. Amanda, I think you should get a checkup I hope you get better! It was July 4th , It was about 8pm, a very warm evening and I was in my bedroom the side of the bed,had just opened the dual windows, turned fan on and started to take a folded Qn -size sheet and had begun the process of flipping it out to lay over the bed..
I went to Dr but other than swelling they didn't find a bleed. So I was advised to rest. NOW - Since this event, I've had Ringing in my ears daily, increase in my migraine headaches, light sensitivity to the point I have to have darkened glasses as my pupils once dilated do not go down and cause much eye pain.
It has now affecting my legs ,like internal shivering for days,and bouts of very spastic involuntary movements when I try to walk around, especially if I am fatigue.
Sleep - chronic insomnia despite medication. I really appreciate any advice.. Thank you very much. A few days ago I was in the woodwork class at my school, there's a kind of loft in it where they store spare wood.
I was climbing down the ladder leading up to it and jumped down the last few steps. I miscalculated and hit my forehead full on the metal garage door. I went to the nurses office and felt fine. But it's been three days and now I'm beginning to feel sick. Like I have a headcold. There's slight swelling on my forehead that hasn't gone down and it feels like there's pressure on it.
The list of symptoms don't really help because for a few weeks now it takes a while for me to fall asleep and I'm always stressed at School, and I've never had a good memory, plus I'm partially sighted in my left eye and never wear my glasses so sometimes everything is blurry. I'm sixteen and never really exercise aside from some rock climbing. Please give me some advice?
I wonder if I could get dementia or something later on because of the accident. I was in an accident at work four months ago. A bar smashed me on the head comparable to a house smacking me on top the head.
My hard hat saved my life. First month I slept, maybe awake for two hours a day and in so much pain I thought I may not wake up. I still have memory loss, ear pain, headaches, extreme fatigue, some coordination problems, concentrating problems. The list goes on. I can work at something for about ten minutes and need a break. WSIB says I have been off long enough and need to get back to work. They say pushing myself will help me heal faster.
I know when I get tired my symptoms get worse. My dizziness and shakes take over. No one is listening. What can I do. I am afraid of getting worse. A bar slammed down on top of my head. It had built up hydraulic pressure. I was not wearing a hard hat.
I have had 9 weeks of different therapies, and am now doing physical therapy for neck pain. I have terrible migraines, double vision, and mood swings. I returned to work in April, mainly bc I could no longer afford it. My employer has been less than helpful, not to mention accommodating in any way. Some days, I feel totally alone in this. They do not even cooperate with time off for therapy and appointments. I am a salary employee, been here for over 30 years. Have you experienced any of this treatment.
I have experienced problems with speech, memory loss, and fatigue. I see a neurologist who specializes in concussion. I feel there is no end in sight. Hellllloooo fellow TBI fighters And here comes a running lb steer running at me. His legs grabbed my waist pulled my head on a boulder We will all find the way I read your comment and though not nice glad someone in cattle shared their story.
On August 28, as my grandson was getting ready to head out to a show a stray dog came up from behind and scared the 7 month old, green still, Brahman heifer. My face was stepped on though she tried to jump over me. Mid concussion, broken nose and a bruised face for a month. Bred and raised Brahmans all my life, my kids showed, breaking them is easy, until a dang stray dog came from behind us, the barn, and scared her.
I was in a car accident about 2 years ago now. I know how truly harsh it can feel exactly. I forget so many important things like it never was a part of my life.
Appointments I miss, scheduling appointments at the same time and not realizing it, forgetting what I was talking or thinking about, losing words that I know and have used all my life, tremors and shaky movements that come and go, etc I feel like I am crazy now, and people have asked me if I am drunk when I don't drink alcohol. I know better than to dis-respect others, so I isolate myself to prevent outbursts that I cannot control, and to avoid interacting in ways that others don't deserve.
I feel like a different person completely, and it is something I try not to think about. I finally have some resolution financially to try and address my body, but I worry it's just a money pit in waiting that will produce minimal results. It's been 2 years, and I treated with therapy for as long as insurance allowed before the money was used. You are not alone, and I hope you know that our heart's can still guide your ways matter how broken, even if we find ourselves acting out on a whim. I know I feel bad afterwards, and I wish that I hadn't went ballistic out of nowhere, but it's just a part of whatever went wrong in our brains.
Someday there will be better treatments and care, but until that day comes all we can do is try to be the best we can be, especially towards others. That is my take on a hard truth that I face, and I hope you see that it's not your fault. So last year around August, I got a concussion while doing a routine check on the slides while lifeguarding.
I hit my head mainly on the top right side. It took a while to realize how I was feeling that day was serious. Was out of work for about a week, and ironically that first day back I got hit in the head again. By a big shade umbrella that came loose in the wind. I was fine after that, but as it turns out not really. That second blow probably is the reason I ended up three months later being diagnosed with post concussion headaches. These have all but gone away now, but when they were happening, it was awful.
It disrupted my studies a lot. Now, fast forward to today. When I got in, I hit my head—of course in the exact spot—with the corner of a little compartment on the ceiling that was open. Right now after resting I feel finally cognitive enough to type well and think, but my head is still hurting and if I get up from bed I feel dizzy and really bleh.
But earlier, I felt very out of it, not completely there, suddenly tired and I almost puked three times but stoped myself. I am honestly quite worried, I wish I could just wear a helmet. Since you already had a brain injury, you are more likely to suffer stronger effects the next time around. I recommend that you visit a hospital and stay there. Other then that, you should be fine. When at the hospital, get a CT scan to ensure you did not mess up your brain.
One head injury before my most recent one was when I got into a fight and was walking away after the fight, a guy ran up behind me and bounced my head off a post. I may have had a concussion from that, but I was never checked. My recent head injury was when my ex punched me in the head, above my ear. It swelled and was awful. I wasn't checked for that either. I was told recently that I may have had a concussion, but since it was 1.
It seemed that they were more interested in judging me for not getting help sooner, but if you do have a concussion, it doesn't make it easy for you to just get help.
Because you can't think like you used to. I think there should be better protocol in how to handle patients who have had or could possibly have had a concussion and more people should understand that the effects can last longer than a few months.
Depression and anxiety are symptoms of a concussion and the doctors shouldn't think that the issue is the symptoms and not the cause. Things are frustrating enough when you have a concussion. The last thing you need is judgment and assumptions being made. I know, now, that I am not. My 22 yr old daughter was in a car accident in Nov She was ejected through and suffered a sub arachnoid hem, a gloved head injury, Box fx of C1, and fractures of T3,4,5.
She was in icu for 3 weeks unconscious and then in rehab hospital for 2 weeks. She is still weak, little energy, some short term memory loss and a very low voice. I feel she needs some kind of therapy to get her strength back but not sure where to turn. She has been dc'd from Neuro and Trauma. Hope you can steer us in the right direction as she is getting depressed because of inability to return to previous lifestyle.
Write wast, they close library soon. I had very serious head injury, uhh dont want tell broken skull, back, brain injury, problems with breathing list gos on, after bus hit me.
Lost my mind after awaking up. Me helped no sugar, no bad stuff from TV. Have memory problems, balance problems but it is ok now. Mind is shuting off then have memory problems after that, but gets better. And I hate this, mind is shuting down. Gets better, no worry! When to Go to the Hospital. What Is the Glasgow Coma Scale? What Is a Concussion? Medical Help People with a concussion need to be seen by a doctor. Danger Signs In rare cases, a dangerous collection of blood hematoma may form on the brain after a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or body that may squeeze the brain against the skull.
Call right away or contact your doctor or emergency department if you have one or more of the following danger signs after a bump, blow, or jolt to the head or body: One pupil larger than the other. Drowsiness or inability to wake up.
A headache that gets worse and does not go away. Slurred speech, weakness, numbness, or decreased coordination. Repeated vomiting or nausea, convulsions or seizures shaking or twitching. Unusual behavior, increased confusion, restlessness, or agitation. Even a brief loss of consciousness should be taken seriously. Danger Signs — Children, Toddlers, and Infants Take your child to the emergency department right away if the child has received a blow or jolt to the head and: Will not stop crying and cannot be consoled.
Will not nurse or eat. Concussion symptoms are often grouped into four categories, including: Young Children Very young children i. Crying more than usual Headache that will not go away Change in the way they play, perform or act at school Change in nursing, eating, or sleeping patterns Becoming easily upset or increased temper tantrums Sad mood Lack of interest in usual activities or favorite toys Loss of new skills, such as toilet training Loss of balance, unsteady walking Poor attention Older Adults Because concussions are often missed or misdiagnosed among older adults, be especially alert if you know that an older adult has fallen or has a fall-related injury, such as a hip fracture.
Adults Here are a few tips to help you get better: Get plenty of sleep at night, and rest during the day. Avoid activities that are physically demanding e. They can make your symptoms worse and slow your recovery. Avoid activities, such as contact or recreational sports, that could lead to a second concussion. It is best to avoid roller coasters or other high-speed rides that can make your symptoms worse or even cause a concussion.
When your doctor says you are well enough, return to your normal activities gradually, not all at once. Because your ability to react may be slower after a concussion, ask your doctor when you can safely drive a car, ride a bike, or operate heavy equipment. Talk with your doctor about when you can return to work. Ask about how you can help your employer understand what has happened to you. Consider talking with your employer about returning to work gradually and about changing your work activities or schedule until you recover e.
Take only those drugs that your doctor has approved. Do not drink alcoholic beverages until your doctor says you are well enough. Alcohol and other drugs may slow your recovery and put you at risk of further injury. Write down the things that may be harder than usual for you to remember. Consult with family members or close friends when making important decisions. Do not neglect your basic needs, such as eating well and getting enough rest. Some people report that flying in airplanes makes their symptoms worse shortly after a concussion.
Children Parents and caregivers of children who have had a concussion can help them recover by taking an active role in their recovery: Having the child get plenty of rest. Keep a regular sleep schedule, including no late nights and no sleepovers. Children should not return to these types of activities until the doctor says they are well enough.
Giving the child only those drugs that are approved by the pediatrician or family physician. Talking with the doctor about when the child should return to school and other activities and how the parent or caregiver can help the child deal with the challenges that the child may face. For example, your child may need to spend fewer hours at school, rest often, or require more time to take tests.
They may need help if you can answer YES to any of the following questions: Are any of the concussion symptoms substantially affecting their life activities such as feeling restricted in their activities due to symptoms, performance in school or at work has changed, unhappy with life changes? Has their personality changed? Do they get angry for no reason? Do they get lost or easily confused? Do they have more trouble than usual making decisions? The Brain Injury Association of America BIAA has a national network of many state affiliates and hundreds of local chapters and support groups across the country that provide help in your community.
Anyways, thank you for telling us about this. I suffer "side effects" while at Niagara Falls. Does anyone else feel this way? That level concussion it could be months or even a year or possibly more that I hate to say. Will this pain ever go away. Lactate accumulates but, paradoxically, cerebral blood flow decreases, which leads to a proposed "energy crisis.
A completely separate pathway involves a large amount of calcium accumulating in cells, which may impair oxidative metabolism and begin further biochemical pathways that result in cell death. Again, both of these main pathways have been established from animal studies and the extent to which they apply to humans is still somewhat unclear.
Head trauma recipients are initially assessed to exclude a more severe emergency such as an intracranial hemorrhage. This includes the "ABCs" airway, breathing, circulation and stabilization of the cervical spine which is assumed to be injured in any athlete who is found to be unconscious after head or neck injury.
Indications that screening for more serious injury is needed include worsening of symptoms such as headaches, persistent vomiting,  increasing disorientation or a deteriorating level of consciousness,  seizures, and unequal pupil size. A brain CT or brain MRI should be avoided unless there are progressive neurological symptoms, focal neurological findings or concern of skull fracture on exam. If the Glasgow Coma Scale is less than 15 at two hours or less than 14 at any time, a CT is recommended.
Concussion may be under-diagnosed because of the lack of the highly noticeable signs and symptoms while athletes may minimize their injuries to remain in the competition. Diagnosis can be complex because concussion shares symptoms with other conditions.
For example, post-concussion symptoms such as cognitive problems may be misattributed to brain injury when, in fact, due to post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD. No single definition of concussion, minor head injury,  or mild traumatic brain injury is universally accepted.
However, although no structural brain damage occurs according to the classic definition,  some researchers have included injuries in which structural damage has occurred and the National Institute for Health and Clinical Excellence definition includes physiological or physical disruption in the brain's synapses. However, the definition has evolved over time to include a change in consciousness, such as amnesia,  although controversy continues about whether the definition should include only those injuries in which loss of consciousness occurs.
Concussion falls under the classification of mild TBI,  but it is not clear whether concussion is implied in mild brain injury or mild head injury. At least 41 systems measure the severity, or grade, of a mild head injury,  and there is little agreement about which is best. In the past, the decision to allow athletes to return to participation was frequently based on the grade of concussion.
However, current research and recommendations by professional organizations including the National Athletic Trainers' Association recommend against such use of these grading systems. Currently, injured athletes are prohibited from returning to play before they are symptom-free during both rest and exertion and until results of the neuropsychological tests have returned to pre-injury levels.
Three grading systems have been most widely followed: Prevention of MTBI involves general measures such as wearing seat belts and using airbags in cars.
Protective equipment such as headgear has been found to reduce the number of concussions in athletes  and improvements in the design of helmets may decrease the number and severity further. Half of these injuries go unreported. Changes to the rules or enforcing existing rules in sports, such as those against "head-down tackling", or "spearing", which is associated with a high injury rate, may also prevent concussions.
After exclusion of neck injury, observation should be continued for several hours. If repeated vomiting, worsening headache, dizziness, seizure activity, excessive drowsiness, double vision, slurred speech, unsteady walk, or weakness or numbness in arms or legs, or signs of basilar skull fracture develop, immediate assessment in an emergency department is warranted.
Since students may appear 'normal', continuing education of relevant school personnel may be needed. Those with concussion are generally prescribed rest,  including adequate nighttime sleep as well as daytime rest.
For persons participating in athletics, the Zurich Consensus Statement on Concussion in Sport recommends that participants be symptom-free before restarting and then progress through a series of graded steps. Only when symptom-free for 24 hours, should progression to the next step occur.
If symptoms occur, the person should drop back to the previous asymptomatic level for at least another 24 hours. The emphasis is on remaining symptom-free and taking it in medium steps, not on the steps themselves. Medications may be prescribed to treat sleep problems and depression.
About one percent of people who receive treatment for MTBI need surgery for a brain injury. Athletes, especially intercollegiate or professional , are typically followed closely by team athletic trainers during this period but others may not have access to this level of health care and may be sent home with minimal monitoring.
People may be released after assessment from hospital or emergency room to the care of a trusted person with instructions to return if they display worsening symptoms  or those that might indicate an emergent condition such as change in consciousness, convulsions, severe headache, extremity weakness, vomiting, new bleeding or deafness in either or both ears. People who have had a concussion seem more susceptible to another one, particularly if the new injury occurs before symptoms from the previous concussion have completely gone away.
MTBI has a mortality rate of almost zero. The overall prognosis for recovery may be influenced by a variety of factors that include age at the time of injury, intellectual abilities, family environment, social support system, occupational status, coping strategies, and financial circumstances. Other strong factors include participation in a contact sport and body mass size. A study found that individuals with a history of concussions might demonstrate a decline in both physical and mental performance for longer than 30 years.
Compared to their peers with no history of brain trauma, sufferers of concussion exhibited effects including loss of episodic memory and reduced muscle speed. In post-concussion syndrome, symptoms do not resolve for weeks, months, or years after a concussion, and may occasionally be permanent. Cumulative effects of concussions are poorly understood, especially the effects on children.
The severity of concussions and their symptoms may worsen with successive injuries, even if a subsequent injury occurs months or years after an initial one. Cumulative effects may include psychiatric disorders and loss of long-term memory. For example, the risk of developing clinical depression has been found to be significantly greater for retired American football players with a history of three or more concussions than for those with no concussion history.
Chronic traumatic encephalopathy, or "CTE", is an example of the cumulative damage that can occur as the result of multiple concussions or less severe blows to the head. The condition was previously referred to as " dementia pugilistica ", or "punch drunk" syndrome, as it was first noted in boxers. The disease can lead to cognitive and physical handicaps such as parkinsonism , speech and memory problems, slowed mental processing, tremor, depression, and inappropriate behavior.
Second-impact syndrome, in which the brain swells dangerously after a minor blow, may occur in very rare cases. The condition may develop in people who receive second blow days or weeks after an initial concussion before its symptoms have gone away. Most cases of traumatic brain injury are concussions. Young children have the highest concussion rate among all age groups. Up to five percent of sports injuries are concussions.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that , sports-related concussions occur yearly in the U. The injury is so common in the latter that several medical groups have called for a ban on the sport, including the American Academy of Neurology, the World Medical Association , and the medical associations of the UK, the US, Australia, and Canada.
Due to the lack of a consistent definition, the economic costs of MTBI are not known, but they are estimated to be very high. The Hippocratic Corpus, collection of medical works from ancient Greece, mentions concussion, later translated to commotio cerebri , and discusses loss of speech, hearing and sight that can result from "commotion of the brain".
In , Guillaume Dupuytren described brain contusions, which involve many small hemorrhages, as contusio cerebri and showed the difference between unconsciousness associated with damage to the brain parenchyma and that due to concussion, without such injury. The terms mild brain injury, mild traumatic brain injury MTBI , mild head injury MHI , and concussion may be used interchangeably;   although the term "concussion" is still used in sports literature as interchangeable with "MHI" or "MTBI", the general clinical medical literature uses "MTBI" instead, since a CDC report outlined it as an important strategy.
The term is from the Latin concutere meaning "to shake violently"  or concussus meaning "action of striking together". Minocycline , lithium , and N-acetylcysteine show tentative success in animal models. Measurement of predictive visual tracking is being studied as a screening technique to identify mild traumatic brain injury.
A head-mounted display unit with eye-tracking capability shows a moving object in a predictive pattern for the person to follow with their eyes. People without brain injury will be able to track the moving object with smooth pursuit eye movements and correct trajectory while it is hypothesized that those with mild traumatic brain injury cannot.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. For other uses, see Concussion disambiguation. Retrieved 18 December Acute Management and Chronic Postconcussive Issues". Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine.
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A rare, catastrophic, preventable complication of concussion in young athletes". Journal of Emergency Nursing. Journal of Athletic Training. Dementia pugilistica to post concussion syndrome".
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Facts About Concussion and Brain Injury
Concussion, also known as mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is typically defined as a head injury that temporarily affects brain functioning. Symptoms may. A concussion is a mild traumatic brain injury (TBI). It can occur after an impact to your head or after a whiplash-type injury that causes your head. Concussion. Concussion is a temporary injury to the brain caused by a bump, blow or jolt to the head. It usually only lasts up to few days or weeks, although it.