What is a Capstone Project? The Capstone Project is a two-semester process wherein students are enabled to take-up independent research. when it comes to your mind. Doing puzzles and playing games such as chess have also been found to be helpful with cognitive stimulation. Green building is basically smart building. Green building is the art of creating new structures and processes that do not harm the environment and are efficient in resources. Green buildings reduce the harmful impact of construction on the environment and lower own pollution rate.
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Actually, this should come as no surprise. BMI, as a single measure, would not be expected to identify cardiovascular health or illness; the same is true for cholesterol, blood sugar, or blood pressure as a single measure. For example, this study did not consider conditions that might also be relevant to an individual with an elevated BMI, such as liver disease or arthritis.
As a single measure, BMI is clearly not a perfect measure of health. As per the anthropological studies the nature had made the human bodies to exert to gather their food in around an area of Whereas the modern man is not even exercising in an area of half the size. Instead of lean body mass, fatty bodies are favoured and even revered and ludicrously defend themselves. So much of attitudinal changes have taken place. Lifestyle modifications with judicious usage of everything that is available is the need of the hour.
An additional tab directly connects the farmer with the Kisan call centre where technical graduates answer their queries. To begin with, a farmer has to register the mobile number, choose a language—at present limited to Hindi and English—and enter details of the state, district and block or sub-district.
A tap on the weather button shows details of temperature, humidity, wind and rainfall for the current day and the forecast for the next five days. Additionally, a farmer can get extreme weather alerts like hailstorms or unseasonal rains—a useful tool for farmers.
For instance, after harvesting, farmers often leave their cereal crops in the field to dry. Prior information on freak rains can help them save their crop.
The market price button shows latest price of all crops traded in a mandi or registered agriculture market of the particular district a farmer belongs to. Additionally, he gets to see the maximum price in the district, state and the entire country on a particular day. AVC, aortic valve closure. Modified from Risum et al. This implies that when measuring strain one should take into account the type of echo equipment in use when defining normal reference values.
Furthermore, caution should be exerted when companies deliver upgrades of software since this may lead to changes in strain values. The figure illustrates how radial strain may be used to determine which segments have latest mechanical activation. A left ventricular parasternal short-axis recording is displayed. Strain in anteroseptal segment shows early-systolic thickening yellow curve. Lateral light blue , posterior green and pink , and posterioseptal segments blue and red show late thickening, indicating latest activation.
A major limitation of the current state of the technology is that segmental strains vary considerably in different publications and there is lack of sufficiently validated reference values for segmental strain. Variability in segmental strains to a large extent reflects different methodologies between vendors, but differences depending on which wall layers are incorporated in the analysis also contributes. With 3D strain, sampling rates are relatively low and this may influence measurements.
A and B Left atrial LA strain by two different speckle-tracking software. A Segmental traces of LA strain and average strain white-dashed trace. Yellow arrow indicates peak strain. Modified from Cameli et al. The study was done in individuals with normal to severely impaired left ventricular function. Numerous studies have shown that myocardial strain imaging provides unique diagnostic information.
The strain imaging methodology is still undergoing development and further clinical trials are needed to determine if clinical decisions based on strain imaging results in better outcome. With this important limitation in mind, strain may be applied clinically as a supplementary diagnostic method and in the following conditions it appears to be useful. In unclear clinical cases, however, it may be considered as a supplementary method.
Further development of strain imaging should be focused on even better standardization of the methodology between different vendors, and the ongoing development of 3D strain should improve the diagnostic potential from the technology. Furthermore, automated image analysis which takes into account more information than just peak strain is expected to improve the diagnostic power of strain imaging.
This applies in particular to myocardial ischaemia where there are so many well-defined features in the strain trace that differs from normal myocardium and this information is wasted when using GLS as the only parameter.
Since strain imaging can identify LV dysfunction earlier than conventional methods this opens a new perspective in heart failure prophylaxis and primary prevention with institution of therapeutic measures before the patients develop symptoms and irreversible myocardial dysfunction. Prospective clinical trials should be started to investigate the added clinical value that strain may represent in patient management. In the meantime, strain may be applied in routine clinical diagnostics with the limitations of the technology kept in mind.
Funding to pay the Open Access publication charges for this article was provided by University of Oslo, Institute of Clinical Medicine. Oxford University Press is a department of the University of Oxford. It furthers the University's objective of excellence in research, scholarship, and education by publishing worldwide. Sign In or Create an Account. Close mobile search navigation Article navigation.
Quantification of global and regional left ventricular function. Cardiomyopathies and sub-clinical left ventricular dysfunction. Risk assessment and prognosis. Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction.
Directions for the future. Abstract Myocardial strain is a principle for quantification of left ventricular LV function which is now feasible with speckle-tracking echocardiography. Left ventricular function , Heart failure , Strain imaging , Left atrial strain , Ventricular arrhythmia , Chemotherapy , Cardiomyopathy , Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
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Myocardial contractility by strain echocardiography: Doppler-derived myocardial systolic strain rate is a strong index of left ventricular contractility. Recommendations for cardiac chamber quantification by echocardiography in adults: Interpretation of systolic wall thickening.
Can thickening of a discrete layer reflect fibre performance? Acute regional myocardial ischemia identified by 2-dimensional multiregion tissue Doppler imaging technique. Identification of acutely ischemic myocardium using ultrasonic strain measurements.
A clinical study in patients undergoing coronary angioplasty. Postsystolic shortening in ischemic myocardium: Myocardial strain analysis in acute coronary occlusion: Myocardial strain analysis by 2-dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography improves diagnostics of coronary artery stenosis in stable angina pectoris. Strain-rate imaging during dobutamine stress echocardiography provides objective evidence of inducible ischemia.
Strain echocardiography and wall motion score index predicts final infarct size in patients with non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction. Acute coronary occlusion in non-ST-elevation acute coronary syndrome: Effects of coronary occlusion on early ventricular diastolic events in conscious dogs.
Mechanisms of improving regional and global ventricular function by preload alterations during acute ischemia in the canine left ventricle. Assessment of myocardial viability at dobutamine echocardiography by deformation analysis using tissue velocity and speckle-tracking.
Analysis of myocardial deformation based on ultrasonic pixel tracking to determine transmurality in chronic myocardial infarction. Relative merits of left ventricular dyssynchrony, left ventricular lead position, and myocardial scar to predict long-term survival of ischemic heart failure patients undergoing cardiac resynchronization therapy. Validation of echocardiographic two-dimensional speckle tracking longitudinal strain imaging for viability assessment in patients with chronic ischemic left ventricular dysfunction and comparison with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.
Prognostic implications of global LV dysfunction: The relative impact of circumferential and longitudinal shortening on left ventricular ejection fraction and stroke volume. Two-dimensional strain profiles in patients with physiological and pathological hypertrophy and preserved left ventricular systolic function: Differentiating left ventricular hypertrophy in athletes from that in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.
Vigorous physical activity impairs myocardial function in patients with arrhythmogenic right ventricular cardiomyopathy and in mutation positive family members. Right ventricular mechanical dispersion is related to malignant arrhythmias: Relationship between longitudinal and radial contractility in subclinical diabetic heart disease.
Findings from left ventricular strain and strain rate imaging in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Subclinical left ventricular dysfunction in asymptomatic patients with Type II diabetes mellitus, related to serum lipids and glycated haemoglobin.
Longitudinal myocardial strain alteration is associated with left ventricular remodeling in asymptomatic patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. Cardiovascular side effects of cancer therapies: Use of myocardial strain imaging by echocardiography for the early detection of cardiotoxicity in patients during and after cancer chemotherapy: Expert consensus for multimodality imaging evaluation of adult patients during and after cancer therapy: Prediction of all-cause mortality and heart failure admissions from global left ventricular longitudinal strain in patients with acute myocardial infarction and preserved left ventricular ejection fraction.
Global longitudinal strain as a major predictor of cardiac events in patients with depressed left ventricular function: Prediction of all-cause mortality from global longitudinal speckle strain: Strain echocardiography improves risk prediction of ventricular arrhythmias after myocardial infarction.
Transmural differences in myocardial contraction in long-QT syndrome: Effect of calcium channel block on the wall motion abnormality of the idiopathic long QT syndrome. Left ventricular mechanical dispersion by tissue Doppler imaging: Cardiac mechanical alterations and genotype specific differences in subjects with long QT syndrome.
Risk assessment of ventricular arrhythmias in patients with nonischemic dilated cardiomyopathy by strain echocardiography. Mechanical dispersion assessed by myocardial strain in patients after myocardial infarction for risk prediction of ventricular arrhythmia. New noninvasive method for assessment of left ventricular rotation: Myocardial relaxation, restoring forces, and early-diastolic load are independent determinants of left ventricular untwisting rate.
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A new mobile appKisan Suvidhalaunched by Narendra Modi will prove helpful for farmers in this regard but they must own a smartphone. Finance Minister Arun Jaitley brought cheer to first-time home buyers by offering an additional deduction of Rs 50, on interest repayment. It is better than calorie restriction diet as counting the intake can sometimes get difficult.