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  • Highland Pharms brings you the most Natural CBD Vape Oil (Juice). We start with an All Natural Vegetable Glycerin base (No Harmful Propylene Glycol used by. Highland Pharms is pleased to announce our CBD VAPE OIL formulation that Most use some amount of Propylene Glycol along with the Vegetable Glycerin. Understand the difference between various CBD vape oils on the market, have been poorly-manufactured without proper third-party lab testing. . that is sometimes added to CBD vape oil to “thin it out” is Propylene Glycol.

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    Hemp is suitable for cultivation and for bio-energy production in the agro-climatic conditions in Latvia. Investigation of mechanical properties of kenaf, hemp and E-glass fiber reinforced composites. Recently the use of fiber reinforced polymer composite in the automobile, aerospace overwhelming designing sectors has increased tremendously due to the ecological issues and health hazard possessed by the synthetic fiber during disposal and manufacturing.

    The paper presents tensile strength, flexural strength and hardness of kenaf-E glass-kenaf, hemp-E glass- hemp and kenaf-E glass- hemp fiber reinforced polyester composites. The composite plates are shaped according to the standard geometry and uni-axially loaded in order to investigate the tensile responses of each combination.

    In addition to the physical and mechanical properties, processing methods and application of kenaf and hemp fiber composites is also discussed.

    Nowadays most plant textiles used for clothing and household are made of cotton and viscose. Before the 19th century however, plant textiles were mainly made from locally available raw materials, in Scandinavia these were: It is generally believed that in Viking and early Middle Ages Scandinavia hemp was used only for coarse textiles i.

    Here we present an investigation of 10 Scandinavian plant fibre textiles from the Viking and Early Middle Ages, believed to be locally produced. Up till now they were all believed to be made of flax. This indicates that hemp was important, not only for coarse but also for fine textile production in Viking and Early Middle Ages in Scandinavia.

    Viking and early Middle Ages northern Scandinavian textiles proven to be made with hemp. Two greenhouse experiments were conducted to examine the effect of Crotalaria juncea amendment on Meloidogyne incognita population levels and growth of yellow squash Cucurbita pepo.

    Half of the amount of each soil received air-dried residues of C. The amendment suppressed the numbers of M. Microwaved soil resulted in greater numbers of M. The effects of C. Soil histories, especially long-term yard waste compost treatments that increased soil organic matter, can affect the performance of C.

    Two new species of Fabaceae-Papilionoideae are described and illustrated. Crotalaria suffruticosa from Karul Ghat region of Maharashtra is morphologically close to C. To test if the new species differ from their morphologically most similar species, we measured various traits and performed a Principal Component Analysis PCA. This analysis shows that the new species differs from similar species in gross morphology for several diagnostic traits and showed correlations between the variables or distance among groups and estimated the contribution of each character.

    Phylogenetic analyses were also conducted based on nuclear ITS and plastid matK markers. The analyses revealed nucleotide differences between the new species and their close allies attributing to their distinctiveness. A map and key including all species of Crotalaria from Maharashtra state are provided. Conservation status of the two new species have also been assessed.

    No clinical signs were observed and, on liver and lung biopsies, the only lesion was a mild liver megalocytosis in the donkeys ingesting 0. The donkeys were euthanized following severe respiratory signs and the main lung lesions were proliferation of Clara cells and interstitial fibrosis. Three donkeys ingested seeds of C. No clinical signs were observed and, on liver and lung biopsies, the only lesion was moderate liver megalocytosis in each of the three donkeys.

    No lung lesions were observed. Another donkey that received a single dose of 2. The hepatic and pneumotoxic effects observed are consistent with an etiology involving DHPAs. Furthermore, the occurrence of lung or liver lesions correlates with the type of DHPAs contained in the seeds. Similarly as has been reported for horses, the data herein suggest that in donkeys some DHPAs are metabolized in the liver causing liver disease, whereas others are metabolized in the lung by Clara cells causing lung disease.

    The presence of sunn pest-damaged grains in wheat mass reduces the quality of flour and bread produced from it.

    Therefore, it is essential to assess the quality of the samples in collecting and storage centers of wheat and flour mills. However, when considering only the two main categories of healthy and unhealthy, an acceptable degree of separation between the classes can be obtained after classification with supervised pattern recognition methods of SIMCA and PLS-DA.

    In this study, five morphological types of circulating hemocytes were recognized in the hemolymph of the adult sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton Hemiptera: Scutelleridae , namely prohemocytes, plasmatocytes, granulocytes, adipohemocytes, and oenocytoids.

    The effects of the secondary metabolites of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana on cellular immune defenses of Eurygaster integriceps were investigated.

    The results showed that the fungal secondary metabolites inhibited phagocytic activity of E. A reduction of phenoloxidase activity was also observed.

    The data suggest that B. This characteristic makes B. Stability of cosmetic emulsion containing different amount of hemp oil. The aim of the study was to determine the optimal conditions, that is the content of hemp oil and time of homogenization to obtain stable dispersion systems.

    For this purpose, six emulsions were prepared, their stability was examined empirically and the most correctly formulated emulsion composition was determined using a computer simulation.

    Variable parameters oil content and homogenization time were indicated by the optimization software based on Kleeman's method.

    Physical properties of the synthesized emulsions were studied by numerous techniques involving particle size analysis, optical microscopy, Turbiscan test and viscosity of emulsions. Empirically determined parameters proved to be consistent with the results obtained using the computer software. The computer software based on Kleeman's method proved to be useful for quick optimization of the composition and production parameters of stable emulsion systems. Moreover, obtaining an emulsion system with proper stability justifies further research extended with sensory analysis, which will allow the application of such systems containing hemp oil, beneficial for skin in the cosmetic industry.

    In the recent years, Astrium GmbH started to develop electronics to control and supply Electric Propulsion systems or corresponding components.

    Furthermore, the tests results gave Thales and Astrium the possibility for a deep understanding of the interaction between the physics and the electronics. The paper presents an overview of the PSCU topology, key features, technical and development logic details as well as a view into the control capabilities of the PSCU.

    Thermochemical pretreatments for enhancing succinic acid production from industrial hemp Cannabis sativa L. The aim of this study was to develop an efficient thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp biomass, in order to increase its bioconversion to succinic acid.

    The influence of the different pretreatments on hydrolysis and succinic acid production by Actinobacillus succinogenes Z was investigated in batch mode, using anaerobic bottles and bioreactors. Results obtained clearly demonstrated the impact of different pretreatments on the bioconversion efficiency of industrial hemp into succinic acid. Published by Elsevier Ltd. Diverse bacteria isolated from root nodules of Trifolium, Crotalaria and Mimosa grown in the subtropical regions of China.

    To analyze the diversity and relationships of rhizobia in the subtropical and tropical zones of China, we characterized 67 bacterial strains isolated from root nodules of five legume species in the genera Trifolium, Crotalaria and Mimosa. The Rhizobium group contained twenty strains isolated from Mimosa pudica, Crotalaria pallida and two species of Trifolium.

    Fifteen of them were R. Twenty-one strains isolated from four species of Trifolium, Crotalaria and Mimosa were classified into five groups of Bradyrhizobium, including B. Agrobacterium group composed of 20 isolates from Mimosa pudica, C. In addition, several strains of Sinorhizobium and Mesorhizobium associated with Trifolium and Burkholderia associated with Mimosa pudica were also identified.

    The predominance of Bradyrhizobium in the nodules of Trifolium was a novel finding and it demonstrated that the nodule microsymbionts might be selected by both the geographic factors and the legume hosts. Effect of winter cover crops on nematode population levels in north Florida. Two experiments were conducted in north-central Florida to examine the effects of various winter cover crops on plant-parasitic nematode populations through time.

    In the first experiment, six winter cover crops were rotated with summer corn Zea mays , arranged in a randomized complete block design.

    The cover crops evaluated were wheat Triticum aestivum , rye Secale cereale , oat Avena sativa , lupine Lupinus angustifolius , hairy vetch Vicia villosa , and crimson clover Trifolium incarnatum.

    At the end of the corn crop in year 1, population densities of Meloidogyne incognita were lowest on corn following rye or oat P sunn hemp Crotalaria juncea , and corn. Population densities of M. Results suggest that winter cover crops tested did not suppress plant-parasitic nematodes effectively. Planting tropical cover crops such as sunn hemp after corn in a triple-cropping system with winter cover crops may provide more versatile nematode management strategies in northern Florida.

    Seed Endophyte Microbiome of Crotalaria pumila Unpeeled: Identification of Plant-Beneficial Methylobacteria. Metal contaminated soils are increasing worldwide. Metal-tolerant plants growing on metalliferous soils are fascinating genetic and microbial resources. Seeds can vertically transmit endophytic microorganisms that can assist next generations to cope with environmental stresses, through yet poorly understood mechanisms.

    The aims of this study were to identify the core seed endophyte microbiome of the pioneer metallophyte Crotalaria pumila throughout three generations, and to better understand the plant colonisation of the seed endophyte Methylobacterium sp.

    Strain Cp3 was detected in C. When inoculated in the soil at the time of flowering, strain Cp3 migrated from soil to seeds. Using confocal microscopy, Cp3-mCherry was demonstrated to colonise the root cortex cells and xylem vessels of the stem under metal stress. Moreover, strain Cp3 showed genetic and in planta potential to promote seed germination and seedling development.

    We revealed, for the first time, that the seed microbiome of a pioneer plant growing in its natural environment, and the colonisation behaviour of an important plant growth promoting systemic seed endophyte. Future characterization of seed microbiota will lead to a better understanding of their functional contribution and the potential use for seed-fortification applications. Sample size for estimating mean and coefficient of variation in species of crotalarias.

    The objective of this study was to determine the sample size necessary to estimate the mean and coefficient of variation in four species of crotalarias C.

    At harvest, 1, pods of each species were randomly collected. In each pod were measured: Measures of central tendency, variability and distribution were calculated, and the normality was verified.

    The sample size varies among species and characters, being necessary a larger sample size to estimate the mean in relation of the necessary for the coefficient of variation. Scutelleridae midgut amylases was examined. Biochemical studgawies showed that inhibitors from Triticale a hybrid of wheat and rye had inhibitiory effects on E. The enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk equations showed the K m remained constant 0.

    Gel assays showed the meaningful inhibition of E. The enzyme kinetic studies using Michaelis-Menten and Lineweaver-Burk equations showed the Km remained constant 0. The focus of this work has been to study how high pressure defibrillation and chemical purification affect the hemp fiber morphology from micro to nanoscale. Microscopy techniques, chemical analysis and X-ray diffraction were used to study the structure and properties of the prepared micro and nanofibers.

    Microscopy studies showed that the used individualization processes lead to a unique morphology of interconnected web-like structure of hemp fibers. The nanofibers are bundles of cellulose fibers of widths ranging between 30 and nm and estimated lengths of several micrometers. Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy FTIR study showed that the pectins were partially removed during the individualization treatments. X-ray analysis showed that the relative crystallinity of the studied fibers increased after each stage of chemical and mechanical treatments.

    Characterization of Lignanamides from Hemp Cannabis sativa L. Hemp seed is known for its content of fatty acids, proteins, and fiber, which contribute to its nutritional value. Here we studied the secondary metabolites of hemp seed aiming at identifying bioactive compounds that could contribute to its health benefits.

    This investigation led to the isolation of 4 new lignanamides, cannabisin M 2 , cannabisin N 5 , cannabisin O 8 , and 3,3'-demethyl-heliotropamide 10 , together with 10 known lignanamides, among which 4 was identified for the first time from hemp seed.

    Lignanamides 2, 7, and showed good antioxidant activity, among which 7, 10, and 13 also inhibited acetylcholinesterase in vitro. The newly identified compounds in this study add to the diversity of hemp seed composition, and the bioassays implied that hemp seed, with lignanamides as nutrients, may be a good source of bioactive and protective compounds.

    QTL mapping identifies a major locus for resistance in wheat to Sunn pest Eurygaster integriceps feeding at the vegetative growth stage. This research provides the first report of a major locus controlling wheat resistance to Sunn pest.

    It developed and validated SNP markers that will be useful for marker-assisted selection. Sunn pest Eurygaster integriceps Puton is the most destructive insect pest of bread wheat and durum wheat in West and Central Asia and East Europe. Breeding for resistance at the vegetative stage of growth is vital in reducing the damage caused by overwintered adult populations that feed on shoot and leaves of seedlings, and in reducing the next generation of pest populations nymphs and adults , which can cause damage to grain quality by feeding on spikes.

    The DH lines and parents were phenotyped for resistance to Sunn pest feeding, using artificial infestation cages at Terbol station, in Lebanon, over three years. Quantitative trait locus QTL analysis identified a single major locus on chromosome 4BS in the two populations, with the resistance allele derived from the landrace accessions, IG and IG SNP markers closest to the QTL showed high similarity to rice genes that putatively encode proteins for defense response to herbivory and wounding.

    The markers were validated in a large, unrelated population of parental wheat genotypes. All wheat lines carrying the 'C-G' haplotype at the identified SNPs were resistant, suggesting that selection based on a haplotype of favourable alleles would be effective in predicting resistance status of unknown genotypes. Role of an Ethanolic Extract of Crotalaria juncea L. Biodegradable polyester-based eco-composites containing hemp fibers modified with macrocyclic oligomers.

    The best experimental conditions were then adopted to modify hemp fibers. Eco-composites based on PBAT and hemp fibers as obtained or modified with PBAT macrocyclics or oligomers were prepared by different process strategies. They were prepared by solid-phase synthesis, and tested for ACE-inhibitory activity.

    Characterization of chemically and enzymatically treated hemp fibres using atomic force microscopy and spectroscopy. The mechanical and moisture resistance properties of natural fibre reinforced composites are dependent on the adhesion between the matrix of choice and the fibre.

    The main goal of this study was to investigate the effect of NaOH swelling of hemp fibres prior to enzymatic treatment and a novel chemical sulfonic acid method on the physical properties of hemp fibres. The colloidal properties of treated hemp fibres were studied exclusively using an atomic force microscope. AFM imaging in tapping mode revealed that each treatment rendered the surface topography of the hemp fibres clean and exposed the individual fibre bundles.

    Hemp fibres treated with laccase had no effect on the surface adhesion forces measured. Hemp fibres treated with sulfonic acid showed an increase in surface de-fibrillation and smoothness. A decrease in adhesion forces for 4-aminotoulenesulfonic acid AT3S treated fibres suggested a reduction in surface polarity. This work demonstrated that AFM can be used as a tool to estimate the surface forces and roughness for modified fibres and that enzymatic coupled with chemical methods can be used to improve the surface properties of natural fibres for composite applications.

    Further, this work is one of the first that offers some insight into the effect of mercerization prior to enzymes and the effect on the surface topography. AFM will be used to selectively screen treated fibres for composite applications based on the adhesion forces associated with the colloidal interface between the AFM tip and the fibre surfaces. Ants have a negative rather than a positive effect on extrafloral nectaried Crotalaria pallida performance.

    Crotalaria pallida Fabaceae is a pantropical plant with extrafloral nectaries EFNs near the reproductive structures. EFN-visiting ants attack and remove arctiid moth Utetheisa ornatrix larvae, the main pre-dispersal seed predator, but the impact of ants on C. To assess this impact, we controlled ant presence on plants and evaluated the reproductive output of C. Predatory wasps also visit EFNs, prey upon U.

    Does this agonistic interaction affect the multitrophic interaction outcome? We found it difficult to evaluate the effect of both visitors because cages excluding wasps affect plant growth and do not allow U. Therefore, we verified whether ant presence inhibited wasp EFN visitation and predicted that 1 if ants confer a benefit for C.

    Additionally, we unexpectedly verified that controls showed a higher percentage of herbivore bored pods than ant-excluded plants. We found that wasps spent less time visiting EFNs patrolled by ants ca. These results support our second prediction and suggest that the outcome of multitrophic interactions may vary with natural enemy actors.

    Experimental and theoretical investigations on the antioxidant activity of isoorientin from Crotalaria globosa. The increasing interests in naturally occurring flavonoids are well known for their bioactivity as antioxidants. The present investigations with combined experimental and theoretical methods are employed to determine the radical scavenging activity and phytochemicals present in Crotalaria globosa, a novel plant source.

    Preliminary quantification of ethanolic extract of leaves shows high phenolic and flavonoid content than root extract; also it is validated through DPPHrad assay. Further analysis is carried out with successive extracts of leaves of varying polarity of solvents.

    The analysis of the theoretical Bond dissociation energy values, for all Osbnd H sites of isoorientin reveals that minimum energy is required to dissociate H-atom from B-ring than A and C-rings.

    In order to validate the antioxidant characteristics of isoorientin the relevant molecular descriptors IP, HOMO-LUMO, Mulliken spin density analysis and molecular electrostatic potential surfaces have been computed and interpreted. From experimental and theoretical results, it is proved that isoorientin can act as potent antiradical scavenger in oxidative system.

    Proteome analysis of gut and salivary gland proteins of fifth-instar nymph and adults of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps. In the digestive system of the sunn pest, Eurygaster integriceps Puton Hemiptera: Scutelleridae , the salivary gland has a key role in extra oral digestion and the gut is the main site for digestion of food.

    In this study, proteomics was used to study the role of proteins involved in digestion. The amount of feeding on wheat grain by adult insects increased by comparison to fifth-instar nymphs. Proteins of the gut and salivary gland in adults and fifth-instar nymphs were analyzed 1 day after feeding. The proteins related to digestion, metabolism, and defense against toxins were accumulated in the gut of adult insects.

    In the salivary gland, phospholipase A2 and arginine kinase were increased in adults. Heat shock protein 70 increased in the gut of fifth-instar nymphs. Proteomic analysis revealed that most of changed proteins in digestive system of sunn pest were increased in adults. This study provided more targets derived from gut and salivary gland for pest management. On the evolutionary arms-race between Utetheisa ornatrix moth and its Florida host, Crotalaria pumila: While Utetheisa ornatrix larvae are able to develop through feeding only on foliage of its hostplants in the genus Crotalaria , in later instars they are attracted to seeds as a richer source of alkaloids.

    Recently, it was demonstrated that seeds receive different degrees of mechanical protection fro Over the last twenty to thirty years composite materials have been used in engineering field.

    Composite materials possess high strength, high strength to weight ratio due to these facts composite materials are becoming popular among researchers and scientists. The major proportion of engineering materials consists of composite materials. Composite materials are used in vast applications ranging from day-to-day household articles to highly sophisticated applications. In this paper an attempt is made to prepare three different composite materials using e-glass and Hemp.

    In this present investigation hybrid composite of Hemp , Glass fiber and Nano clay will be prepared by Hand-layup technique. The glass fiber used in this present investigation is E-glass fiber bi-directional: The composite samples will be made in the form of a Laminates. In the present work, a new Hybrid composite is developed in which Hemp , E glass fibers is reinforced with epoxy resin and with Nano clay. Phytoremediation of crude oil-contaminated soil employing Crotalaria pallida Aiton.

    The purpose of the study was to evaluate the phytoremediation potentiality of a herb named Crotalaria pallida which are abundantly grown on crude oil-contaminated soil of oil field situated at upper Assam, India, so that this plant could be used to remediate hydrocarbon from contaminated soil.

    Ten numbers of healthy seeds of C. A control setup was also maintained without adding crude oil. After that, uptake of hydrocarbon by the plants was found to be lower with increasing doses of crude oil concentration. Uptake of hydrocarbon by the shoot was found to be maximum, i.

    The results also demonstrated that there was a reduction in plant shoot and root biomass with an increase of crude oil concentration. Furthermore, results revealed that the shoot biomass was higher than root biomass in all the treatments. This study described for the first time, identification of E. A total of and base pair long putative trypsin and cysteine gene sequences were characterized and named Tryp and Cys, respectively.

    In addition, the tissue-specific relative gene expression levels of these genes as well as gluten hydrolase Gl were determined under different host kernels feeding conditions. Result showed that mRNA expression of Cys, Tryp, and Gl was significantly affected after feeding on various host plant species. Transcript levels of these genes were most abundant in the wheat-fed E. The Cys transcript was detected exclusively in the gut, whereas the Gl and Tryp transcripts were detectable in both salivary glands and gut.

    The results indicated that topically applied dsRNA on fifth nymphal stage can penetrate the cuticle of the insect and induce RNA interference. The Cys gene mRNA transcript in the gut was reduced to Also, it was found that dsRNA of Cys gene affected fifth nymphal stage development suggesting the involvement of this protease in the insect growth, development, and molting. Manufacturing technology and application of hemp cigarette paper with dense ash integration. Cigarette paper, as one of the significant materials used for combustion, has special and direct influence on the smoke, also directly influencing the ash appearance of cigarettes before and after combustion.

    In this paper, full hemp cigarette paper was prepared through creative beating and mixing slurry technology, and the advantages of the preparation process were analyzed.

    Full hemp cigarette paper was creatively applied to the preparation and verification of slim cigarettes, and the ash integration effect in the process of burning and its influence on whiteness were verified. At the same time, the physical and chemical indexes of cigarette paper were tested and studied, and sensory evaluation was applied to verify the effect of cigarette paper on sensory quality.

    Improving enzymatic hydrolysis of industrial hemp Cannabis sativa L. The electron beam irradiation was applied as a pretreatment of the enzymatic hydrolysis of hemp biomass with doses of , and kGy. The higher solubility of the treated sample was originated from the chains scission during irradiation, which was indirectly demonstrated by the increase of carbonyl groups as shown in diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy DRIFTS spectra.

    The changes in the micro-structure of hemp resulted in the better response to enzymatic hydrolysis with commercial cellulases Celluclast 1. The improvement in enzymatic hydrolysis by the irradiation was more evident in the hydrolysis of the xylan than in that of the cellulose.

    New bio-materials have recently gained interest for use in insulation panels in walls, but wider adoption by the building industry is hindered by their intrinsic properties. The fact that such materials are mainly composed of cellulose makes them combustible, and their hydrophilic surface presents a high water uptake, which would lead to faster biodegradation.

    The surface of hemp shiv coated several times with 45 and nm particles were uniformly covered, as well as extensively water repellent. Those samples could withstand in humidity chamber without loss of their hydrophobic property and no sign of mould growth after 72 h of exposure. HEMP high-altitude electromagnetic pulse test and analysis of selected recloser-control units. Two types of recloser-control units were tested: It was found that the ARES fields did not cause reproducible disruptive failure of the equipment.

    Minor upsets, which were considered to be non-disruptive to the recloser operation, were observed. Effect of unconventional oilseeds safflower, poppy, hemp , camelina on in vitro ruminal methane production and fermentation. Dietary supplementation with oilseeds can reduce methane emission in ruminants, but only a few common seeds have been tested so far. This study tested safflower Carthamus tinctorius , poppy Papaver somniferum , hemp Cannabis sativa , and camelina Camelina sativa seeds in vitro using coconut Cocos nucifera oil and linseed Linum usitatissimum as positive controls.

    The level of methanogenesis and the ratios of either the n Unconventional oilseeds widen the spectrum of oilseeds that can be used in dietary methane mitigation.

    In vivo confirmation of their methane mitigating effect is still needed, and their effects on animal performance still must be determined. The utilized filler comprised the hydrated lime with clay and Portland cement used as additives. The analysis involved evaluation of such properties as porosity, density, thermal conductivity, absorptivity, permeability, as well as compressive and flexural strength. Depending on the quantity of the filler, the properties of the composite changed.

    This, in turn, enabled to evaluate whether the utilized composite met the thermal requirements established for low-energy buildings. Afterwards, the obtained data were cross-referenced with the results gathered in the case of a room built of autoclaved aerated concrete. In order to prevent reaching the critical surface humidity, the internal surface temperature had to be calculated.

    Moreover, the chances of interstitial condensation occurring in the wall made of the analyzed lime-flax- hemp composite were determined as well. The study showed that the composite exhibits low strength, low density, low thermal conductivity, and high absorptivity. The external walls made of the lime-flax- hemp composite receive a limited exposure to condensation, but not significant enough to constitute any threat. The requirements established for low-energy buildings can be met by using the analyzed composite.

    Moreover, the chances of interstitial condensation occurring in the wall made of the analyzed lime—flax— hemp composite were determined as well. The external walls made of the lime—flax— hemp composite receive a limited exposure to condensation, but not significant enough to constitute any threat.

    Analysis of cannabinoids in commercial hemp seed oil and decarboxylation kinetics studies of cannabidiolic acid CBDA. Hemp seed oil from Cannabis sativa L. Hence, it is important to have an analytical method for the determination of these components in commercial samples. At the same time, it is also important to assess the safety of the product in terms of amount of any psychoactive cannabinoid present therein.

    Moreover, since decomposition of cannabinoid acids generally occurs with light, air and heat, decarboxylation studies of the most abundant acid CBDA were carried out in both open and closed reactor and the kinetics parameters were evaluated at different temperatures in order to evaluate the stability of hemp seed oil in different storage conditions.

    A positive cannabinoids workplace drug test following the ingestion of commercially available hemp seed oil. Urine specimens collected from the volunteer were subjected to standard workplace urine drug testing procedures, and the following concentrations of nor-delta9- tetrahydrocannabinol carboxylic acid 9-THCA were detected: Ingestion was discontinued after 93 h, and the following concentrations were detected: Four subsequent specimens taken to h were also negative.

    This study indicates that a workplace urine drug test positive for cannabinoids may arise from the consumption of commercially available cold-pressed hemp seed oil. Molecular cytogenetic analysis of monoecious hemp Cannabis sativa L. Sex expression is controlled by an X-to-autosome balance system consisting of the heteromorphic sex chromosomes XY for males and XX for females. Genetically monoecious hemp offers several agronomic advantages compared to the dioecious cultivars that are widely used in hemp cultivation.

    The male or female origin of monoecious maternal plants is unknown. Additionally, the sex chromosome composition of monoecious hemp forms remains unknown. In this study, we examine the sex chromosome makeup in monoecious hemp using a cytogenetic approach. Eight monoecious and two dioecious cultivars were used. All monoecious plants showed female amplification patterns. There was a high level of intra- and intercultivar karyotype variation detected.

    The results of this study can be used for further analysis of the genetic basis of sex expression in plants. Effect of metal ions on the enzymatic hydrolysis of hemp seed oil by lipase Candida sp. In order to study the effect of metal ions on the enzymatic hydrolysis of hemp seed oil by Candida sp. The UV spectroscopy showed that all the metal ions enhanced the absorbance but the decrease of fluorescence intensity was observed.

    The study revealed that metal ions could improve lipase stability, hydrolysis activity in the hydrolytic process of hemp seed oil by Candida sp.

    Crotadihydrofuran C CC from the herbs of Crotalaria albida is able to inhibit adipocyte differentiation and lipid accumulation. However, the effects of CC on obesity and metabolic disorders have not yet been elucidated.

    In our study, the first enantioselective synthesis of the 2-isopropenyl dihydrofuran isoflavone skeleton CC is described. The convenient and efficient synthetic protocols developed skilfully solve the problems of the ortho-para directing group and Suzuki coupling reaction using a boronic acid pinacol ester that was more stable and easy to obtain. Furthermore, CC treatment of high-fat diet HFD -fed obese mice remarkably reduced their body weight, fat mass, and lipid level as well as improved insulin resistance and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease NAFLD.

    These results suggest that CC could be a useful and potential natural product for treating metabolic diseases, including obesity, hyperlipidemia insulin resistance and NAFLD, without toxic side-effects. Laccase enzyme detoxifies hydrolysates and improves biogas production from hemp straw and miscanthus. The impact of various phenolic compounds, vanillic acid, ferulic acid, p-coumaric acid and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid on anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass hemp straw and miscanthus was studied.

    Such phenolic compounds have been known to inhibit biogas production during anaerobic digestion. The different phenolic compounds were added in various concentrations: A difference in inhibition of biomethane production between the phenolic compounds was noted.

    To counter the inhibition, lignin degrading enzymes can be used to remove or degrade the inhibitory phenolic compounds. The interaction of laccase and versatile peroxidase individually with the different phenolic compounds was studied to have insight in the polymerization of inhibitory compounds or breakdown of lignocellulose.

    Finally a combination of enzymatic detoxification and subsequent biogas production showed that a decrease in phenolic compounds by laccase treatment can considerably lower the inhibition levels of the biogas production.

    Effect of alkali treatment on the physical and surface properties of Indian hemp fibers. The Plant fibers are rich in cellulose and they are a cheap, easily renewable source of fibers with the potential for polymer reinforcement. The presence of surface impurities and the large amount of hydroxyl groups make plant fibers less attractive for reinforcement of polymeric materials.

    Hemp Cannabis Sativa L. The structural properties and surface morphology of untreated and chemically modified fibers have been studied using X-ray diffraction WAXS and Scanning electron microscopy SEM respectively. DNA barcoding and morphological analysis for rapid identification of most economically important crop-infesting Sunn pests belonging to Eurygaster Laporte, Hemiptera, Scutelleridae. Soboleva; Popov, Vasily N. Abstract The genus Eurygaster Laporte, includes ten species five of which inhabit the European part of Russia.

    The harmful species of the genus is E. Eurygaster species identification based on the morphological traits is very difficult, while that of the species at the egg or larval stages is extremely difficult or impossible. The genus Eurygaster Laporte, includes ten species five of which inhabit the European part of Russia. Eurygaster integriceps , E.

    Pro-technological and functional characterization of lactic acid bacteria to be used as starters for hemp Cannabis sativa L. Lactic acid bacteria were isolated from hemp Cannabis sativa L. Isolates were identified and further selected based on pro-technological, nutritional and functional properties.

    Significant decreases of the concentration of phytic acid, condensed tannins, and total saponins were observed during fermentation. The use of hemp sourdough improved the textural features of wheat bread, without adversely affect the sensory profile.

    This work demonstrated that the fermentation with selected starters improved nutritional functionality of hemp flour, allowing its large-scale use in different food applications, meeting the consumers and producers request for novel fermented baked goods with a well-balanced nutritional profile. Crotalaria -induced pulmonary hypertension. Uptake of 3H-thymidine by the cells of the pulmonary circulation and alveolar walls.

    Feeding with Crotalaria spectabilis seeds induces structural changes in the pulmonary arterial circulation characteristic of pulmonary hypertension: By autoradiographic techniques, after injection of 3H-thymidine into rats fed Crotalaria for 3, 7, 14, 21, 28, or 35 days, the contribution of hyperplasia to these changes has been assessed at two levels of the pulmonary artery--the hilum and the periphery.

    In the hilar pulmonary artery, a biphasic increase in labeling index LI is seen in each cell type. After 3 days of feeding, the medial smooth muscle cells show a slight but significant increase 1. After 14 days LI for all three cell types is again at control values, but after 21 days wall thickness is no increased each cell type shows at least a fivefold increase; by 35 days all are again near control levels.

    In the intra-acinar region, by 14 days, "newly" muscularized arteries are identified and increase in number and proportion up to 35 days; 3H-thymidine uptake is not evident in this cell type until 35 days have passed.

    The ECs of these arteries, however, show a striking increase in LI after 14 days as do those of the alveolar capillaries. The ECs of the intra-acinar veins show a biphasic response being increased after 7, 28, and 35 days. The present study has shown that Crotalaria ingestion induces hyperplasia and hypertrophy of pulmonary arterial cells at pre- and intra-acinar levels.

    The early increase in LI probably represents a response to the original cell injury, the later changes, a response to continuing damage or, in part, adaptation to the pulmonary hypertension now present.

    Evaluation of mechanical properties of hybrid fiber hemp , jute, kevlar reinforced composites. In today's world composites play wide role in all the engineering fields. The reinforcement of composites decides the properties of the material. Natural fiber composites compared to synthetic fiber possesses poor mechanical properties.

    The solution for this problem is to use combination of natural fiber and synthetic fiber. Hybridization helps to improve the overall mechanical properties of the material. Appropriate test methods as per standards and guidelines are followed to analyze mechanical behavior of the composites. The mechanical characteristics like tensile, compression and flexural properties of the hybrid reinforced composites are tested as per the ASTM standards by series of tensile test; compression test and three point bending tests were conducted on the hybrid composites.

    Dose-response studies revealed that the resistance factor for MCPA, based on GR50 comparisons of total dry weight of resistant R and susceptible S plants, was 3. Resistance factors for fluroxypyr, dicamba, 2,4-D, glyphosate, and chlorsulfuron were 8. In support of these results, genetic studies indicated that the inheritance of MCPA resistance is governed by at least two nuclear genes with additive effects.

    Effects of selected pectinolytic bacterial strains on water-retting of hemp and fibre properties. To study the effect of selected bacterial strains on hemp water-retting and properties of retted fibre. The trials were performed in laboratory tanks. The traditional water-retting process, without inoculum addition, was compared to a process modified by inoculating water tanks with two selected pectinolytic bacteria: Six different incubation times were compared.

    Half the fibre obtained from each tank was combed. Micromorphological analyses were performed by scanning electron microscopy on uncombed and combed fibres. Moreover, organoleptic and chemical analyses of uncombed fibres were performed. The inoculum, besides speeding up the process, significantly improved the fibre quality. The fibre was not damaged by mechanical hackling, thanks to the good retting level obtained by the addition of selected strains, differently to what happened with the traditionally retted fibre.

    The best fibre quality was obtained after days of retting with the addition of the bacterial inoculum. Retting is the major limitation to an efficient production of high-quality hemp fibres. The water-retting process and fibre quality were substantially improved by simultaneously inoculating water tanks with two selected pectinolytic strains.

    Biocomposite samples were measured for weight loss over time, to observe the rate of fungal growth and the respiration of cellulose components in the fibers. Tensile testing was conducted to measure mechanical properties of the composite samples under different configurations.

    Scanning electron microscopy was employed to visualize fungal hyphal growth on the natural fibers, as well as to observe the fracture planes and failure modes of the biocomposite samples. Results showed that fungal growth significantly affects the dry mass as well as the tensile elastic modulus of the tested natural fiber mats and composites, and the effect depends on both the type and the length scale of fibers, as well as the exposure condition and time.

    Non-drug varieties of Cannabis sativa L. The ever-increasing demand for vegetables oils has made it essential to characterize additional vegetable oil through innovative uses of its components. This study is an interesting contribution for C. Effect of trypsin inhibitor from Crotalaria pallida seeds on Callosobruchus maculatus cowpea weevil and Ceratitis capitata fruit fly.

    A proteinaceous trypsin inhibitor was purified from Crotalaria pallida seeds by ammonium sulfate precipitation, affinity chromatography on immobilized trypsin-Sepharose and TCA precipitation. The trypsin inhibitor, named CpaTI, had M r of CpaTI was also stable from pH 2 to 12 at 37 degrees C. CpaTI weakly inhibited chymotrypsin and elastase and its inhibition of papain, a cysteine proteinase, were indicative of its bi-functionality.

    CpaTI inhibited, in different degrees, digestive enzymes from Spodoptera frugiperda, Alabama argillacea, Plodiainterpunctella, Anthonomus grandis and Zabrotes subfasciatus guts. In vitro and in vivo susceptibility of Callosobruchus maculatus and Ceratitis capitata to CpaTI was evaluated.

    When CpaTI was added to artificial diets and offered to both insect larvae, the results showed that C. The aim of the present research was to investigate the replacement of glass fibers with hemp fibers for applications in the piping industry. The choice of hemp fibers was mainly related to the needs, expressed by some companies operating in this sector, for cost reduction without adversely reducing the performances of the pipes.

    Two processing techniques, namely hand lay up and light RTM, were evaluated. The fitting must withstand an internal pressure of 10 bar and the presence of acid aqueous solutions.

    The original lay-up used to build the pipe is a sequence of C-glass, glass mats and glass fabric. Commercial epoxy vinyl ester resin was used as thermoset matrix. Hemp fibers mats were selected as potential substitute of glass fibers mats because of their low cost and ready availability from different commercial sources. The data obtained from the mechanical characterization were used to define a favorable design of the pipe using hemp mats as internal layer. The light RTM techniques was developed on purpose for the manufacturing of the curved pipe.

    The pipe selected for the study was a curved fitting 90 deg. Nutritive quality of romanian hemp varieties Cannabis sativa L. Background The study aims to determine the nutritional value of hemp seed expressed by the oil content and by the concentration of metals Ca, Mg, K, Fe, Mn, Zn and Cd , for five varieties of monoecious and dioecious hemp seeds approved in Romania, comparative with the concentration of these metals in the soil.

    Results The content of oil in hempseed registers a slight decrease in the production records of , losses due to drought and low levels of precipitation during the growth period. The greatest loss is found in Diana monoecious variety For the soil the following macroelements concentrations were determined: The soils in the experience area contain large amounts of Fe — mg.

    The presence of K in large quantities determines the accumulation of large quantities of Fe in the soil. Conclusion Hempseed belonging to the five Romanian varieties are rich source of nutrients Ca, Mg, K and unsaturated oil easily digestible by the body, but the presence of Cd concentrations above the upper limit puts a question mark over the use of seeds in various food products.

    Hemp extracts easily certain metals from the soil. Significant amounts of Fe — mg. Summer cover crops reduce atrazine leaching to shallow groundwater in southern Florida. At Florida's southeastern tip, sweet corn Zea Mays is grown commercially during winter months. Most fields are treated with atrazine 6-chloro-N-ethyl-N'-[1-methylethyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine.

    Hydrogeologic conditions indicate a potential for shallow groundwater contamination. This was investigated by measuring the parent compound and three degradates--DEA 6-chloro-N-[1-methylethyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine , DIA 6-chloro-N-ethyl -1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine, and HA 6-hydroxy-N-[1-methylethyl]-1,3,5-triazine-2,4-diamine --in water samples collected beneath sweet corn plots treated annually with the herbicide.

    During the study, a potential mitigation measure i. Predominance of DEA, which increased after the second atrazine application, was interpreted as an indication of rapid and extensive atrazine degradation in soil and indicated that an adapted community of atrazine degrading organisms had developed.

    A companion laboratory study found a sixfold increase in atrazine degradation rate in soil after three applications. Groundwater data also revealed that atrazine and degradates concentrations were significantly lower in samples collected beneath cover crop plots when compared with concentrations below fallow plots. Together, these findings demonstrated a relatively small although potentially significant risk for leaching of atrazine and its dealkylated degradates to groundwater and that the use of a cover crop like Sunn Hemp during summer months may be an effective mitigation measure.

    The biodegradability of Manila hemp fiber reinforced biodegradable plastics was studied for days in a natural soil and 30 days in a compost soil. After biodegradability tests, weights were measured and both tensile strength tests and microscopic observation were performed to evaluate the biodegradation behavior of the composites.

    The results indicate that the tensile strength of the composites displays a sharp decrease for up to five days, followed by a gradual decrease.

    The weight loss and the reduction in tensile strength of biodegradable composite materials in the compost soil are both significantly greater than those buried in natural soil. The biodegradability of these composites is enhanced along the lower portion because this area is more easily attacked by microorganisms. Hemp mats and weaved fabrics were used as received and after surface treatment as reinforcement for composites. However, if surface treatment was too severe degradation of the mechanical properties of the single fibre was observed and this resulted in a reinforcing efficiency loss.

    The use of weaved fabrics lead to high improvements of composite mechanical properties despite the absence of fibre's surface treatment. Mechanical models were also used to predict the mechanical properties of the composites. Interconnected carbon nanosheets derived from hemp for ultrafast supercapacitors with high energy. These characteristics favorably place the materials on a Ragone chart providing among the best power-energy characteristics on an active mass normalized basis ever reported for an electrochemical capacitor: Moreover the assembled supercapacitor device yields a maximum energy density of 12 Wh kg -1 , which is higher than that of commercially available supercapacitors.

    By taking advantage of the complex multilayered structure of a hemp bast fiber precursor, such exquisite carbons were able to be achieved by simple hydrothermal carbonization combined with activation.

    This novel precursor-synthesis route presents a great potential for facile large-scale production of high-performance carbons for a variety of diverse applications including energy storage. In this study, six combinations of flax, hemp , and glass fiber were investigated for a hybrid reinforcement system in a polyurethane PU composite. The natural fibers were combined with glass fibers in a PU composite in order to achieve a better mechanical reinforcement in the composite material.

    The effect of fiber hybridization in PU composites was evaluated through physical and mechanical properties such as water absorption WA , specific gravity SG , coefficient of linear thermal expansion CLTE , flexural and compression properties, and hardness. Cannabidiol CBD -based treatments for several diseases, including Tourette's syndrome, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, movement disorders and glaucoma, are proving to be beneficial and the scientific clinical background of the drug is continuously evolving.

    Patients' quality of life was evaluated using the medical outcome short-form health survey questionnaire SF Two patients dropped out due to iatrogenic adverse events and another two patients stopped the treatment early due to lack of any improvement. SF showed significant benefits in the physical component score P hemp oil also significantly reduced body pain according to the SF assessment. This study demonstrated the safety and tolerability of CBD-rich hemp oil and the primary efficacy endpoint.

    Randomized controlled trials are warranted to characterize the safety profile and efficacy of this compound. The effect of particle shape and size distribution on the acoustical properties of mixtures of hemp particles. Hemp concrete is an attractive alternative to traditional materials used in building construction. Vape pens will heat the cannabis oil at a low temperature, which creates a smooth vapor stream rather than a harsh smoke.

    Gummies generally contain anywhere from 5 to 30mg of cannabidiol per piece, and are extremely easy to consume. All of their products are made without preservatives or artificial flavors, and have been recommended for anxiety, stress, and even stubborn, hard to treat pain. We hope you found this article to be informative, useful, and most importantly, helpful.

    Stay healthy friends, and as always — stay green! I would classify my self as an opiate refugees, a term I read in an article on chronic pain patients left out in the cold from the war on opiates. I am 59 years old and disabled to the point of no further quality of life.

    I basically move from my bed to the restroom. My children have been thrown into the responsibility of everything except bathing and dressing me.

    This seems to lighten the amount of pain but very minimally. Is the brand insufficient, is it a quality brand. I am searching daily for effective help. The inactivity brings on even more pain symptoms. Can you inform me on my brand I purchased. Advise me on another that might be more helpful?

    Any help or information would be appreciated. CBD has been a great asset in my life today, It has helped me with my immense ammount of pain. This review is great, it is really hard to find out who to trust with CBD companies now adays… You never really know what your getting. Has anyone tried cbd from healthworxcbd before?

    If anyone has tried from there before please let me know. Will it not work that way? That said, your science is way off. The identification and distinction of the two categories you call CBD oil and CBD hemp oil make absolutely no sense at all.

    Concentrations may vary based on their sub-category strains. CBD is removed from the plant with an extraction method: The result of this is an extract which you can call oil, tincture, crude oil, raw oil, full spectrum extract, whatever you want.

    Then the MATH comes. What you remove, you make up in volume. As simple as that. These numbers are far from reality and only indicative for the math. Remove the fats and you have Do you want CBD? Do you need the plant material? Do you need the plant fats? The ketones, the esters, the ethers…. The volatiles monoterpenes, ketones, esters, ethers, alcohols, blah blah blah will provide a certain effect based on the formulation and concentration they are present in.

    Make sure it came from a plant that grew on planet earth. CBD is little to non regulated in most areas, which means that Jim and John can get together, form an LLC, buy some crap from here and some crap from there, mix it, slap a label on it and sell it.

    Yes, without any analysis required. So make sure your favorite brands analyzes its products in its final form of sale your juice bottle, drops, whatever and provides you with an accessible certificate that has tested for: I know this was from awhile ago, but DAMN!!

    Thank you for taking the time to write this wonderful comment! I have taken it for 4 months with no results in my opinion. Looking for something more holistic now. Definitely, what a fantastic site and enlightening posts, I surely will bookmark your site. Is it safe to mix nicotine vape oil and cbs hemp oil? What mg vape oil and what what amount hemp oilI? Unlike Vegetable Glycerin, PG tends to have side-effects and may cause allergic reactions, irritations, and inflammation.

    Therefore, most producers nowadays normally use PG. Leave a Reply Cancel reply. Your email address will not be published. Remember me Lost your password? Patricia Philpot on February 10, John Bull on February 1, Rob Adkins on November 14, Miranda on October 8, Sandra moudy on September 21, Adam on September 21, Dylan on January 31, Lib on October 4, Deborah Conner on July 9, Carmen Batty on July 6, Deanna Little on June 22,

    Best CBD Vape Oils

    Episode CBD Oil and Alzheimer's Disease In this episode, Dr. Daniel Pompa, . from industrial hemp, but it has some amazing, extraordinary properties without . and in a cancer cell that doesn't die, it up regulates glycolysis. .. It needs to be in the right blend, and the blend contains propylene glycol. Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil: analytical and phytochemical .. Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent The resultant composites are further employed as a catalyst for glycolysis of Mechanical performance of hemp fiber polypropylene composites at different operating temperatures. The oil extracted from Crotalaria juncea (Sunn-hemp) contains 70% of gum. . Total dry matter yield at harvest (without roots) fluctuated between and t Mechanical performance of hemp fiber polypropylene composites at different The resultant composites are further employed as a catalyst for glycolysis of.

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    Episode CBD Oil and Alzheimer's Disease In this episode, Dr. Daniel Pompa, . from industrial hemp, but it has some amazing, extraordinary properties without . and in a cancer cell that doesn't die, it up regulates glycolysis. .. It needs to be in the right blend, and the blend contains propylene glycol.


    Hemp (Cannabis sativa L.) seed oil: analytical and phytochemical .. Ultrasound pre-treatment of intact hemp seeds without any solvent The resultant composites are further employed as a catalyst for glycolysis of Mechanical performance of hemp fiber polypropylene composites at different operating temperatures.

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