Supercritical fluid extractions (SFE) using CO2 can be used in a variety of industries, such Check out Engineering Peer Review (EPR) certifications of Apeks. Original Equipment Manufacturer: Apeks Supercritical This Engineering Peer Review was prepared for: Checked by: xLD Subcritical/Supercritical CO2 system (manual) Colorado, providing all pressure relief valves are vented to exhaust piping. .. The purpose of an EPR is to add value and reduce. The attached Engineering Peer Review for multiple models of the Apeks Supercritical CO2 This Certification Sheet is applicable only to Apeks Supercritical Oregon, providing all pressure relief valves are vented to exhaust piping. The Checked by: XLD Subcritical/Supercritical CO2 system (manual).
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Probably, because an equilibrium in the phosphorus conditions was not yet reached at the end of the treatment, the attempt failed to find any clear connection between the distribution of the. Relationship between the isotopic composition of strontium in newly formed continental clay minerals and their source material.
They may, therefore, be used as a genetic tracer. Therefore, montmorillonites are able to form homogeneous authigenic minerals by synsedimentary alterations. Self- formed waterfall plunge pools in homogeneous rock. Waterfalls are ubiquitous, and their upstream propagation can set the pace of landscape evolution, yet no experimental studies have examined waterfall plunge pool erosion in homogeneous rock.
We performed laboratory experiments, using synthetic foam as a bedrock simulant, to produce self- formed waterfall plunge pools via particle impact abrasion. Plunge pool vertical incision exceeded lateral erosion by approximately tenfold until pools deepened to the point that the supplied sediment could not be evacuated and deposition armored the pool bedrock floor.
Lateral erosion of plunge pool sidewalls continued after sediment deposition, but primarily at the downstream pool wall, which might lead to undermining of the plunge pool lip, sediment evacuation, and continued vertical pool floor incision in natural streams.
Undercutting of the upstream pool wall was absent, and our results suggest that vertical drilling of successive plunge pools is a more efficient waterfall retreat mechanism than the classic model of headwall undercutting and collapse in homogeneous rock.
Observation of the bone mineral density of newly formed bone using rabbits. Compared with newly formed bone around implants and cortical bone. There have been many studies reporting that newly formed bone around implants is spongy bone. However, although the morphology is reported as being like spongy bone, it is difficult to discriminate whether the bone quality of newly formed bone appears similar to osteoid or cortical bone; therefore, evaluation of bone quality is required.
The aims of this study were to measure the bone mineral density BMD values of newly formed bone around implants after 4, 8, 16, 24 and 48 weeks, to represent these values on three-dimensional color mapping 3Dmap , and to evaluate the change in bone quality associated with newly formed bone around implants.
The animal experimental protocol of this study was approved by the Ethics Committee for Animal Experiments of our University. This experiment used 20 surface treatment implants Ti-6Al-4V alloy: They were embedded into surgically created flaws in femurs of 20 New Zealand white rabbits 16 weeks old, male.
The rabbits were sacrificed with an ear intravenous overdose of pentobarbital sodium under general anesthesia each period, and the femurs were resected. The BMD of cortical bone was 1, The BMD of newly formed bone around implants was It was revealed that the color scale of newly formed bone was Low level at 4 weeks, and then it. First, new memory representations were formed by presenting pictures depicting a person either in an erotic pose or as a portrait.
Afterwards, to activate newly -built memory traces, edited pictures were presented showing only the head region of the person. ERP recordings revealed the emotional regulation of attention by newly-formed memories.
Specifically, edited pictures from the erotic compared to the portrait category elicited an early posterior negativity and late positive potential, similar to the findings observed for the original pictures. A control condition showed that the effect was dependent on newly-formed memory traces.
Given the large number of new memories formed each day, they presumably make an important contribution to the regulation of attention in everyday life. Newly formed skeletal muscle fibers are prone to false positive immunostaining by rabbit antibodies.
We suggest that reliable immuno-based protein detection in newly formed muscle fibers at least requires a nonsense rabbit In this study we demonstrate that newly formed myofibers are especially prone to false positive staining by rabbit antibodies and this unwanted staining This paper compares the traditional forms of capitalization used by American co-ops to newly emerging forms.
It is based on an in-depth review of several case co-ops. A broad framework is provided that may be beneficial in more extensive studies of capitalization practices of cooperatives and similar organizations.
It is divided into three parts. Part One outlines the alternative capitalization forms being used by cooperatives and their antecedents, where conversions to other structures and f UAV observation of newly formed volcanic island, Nishinoshima, Japan, from a ship.
Takeoff and landing of the UAV was conducted on a ship. Nishinoshima is a small island, km west of Chichijima in Ogasawara Islands, Japan. New eruption started in November in a shallow sea approximately m southeast of the existing Nishinoshima Island. In late December , the islet coalesced with the existing Nishinoshima. In 16 month, the lava field reached 2. Human landing upon the newly formed part of the island has still been prohibited due to the danger of sudden eruptions.
Before our mission, some pumice or rock samples had been taken from the island but their amount was not enough to conduct detailed petrological analyses. The evolution of the lava field from the central cone has been well documented by using images taken from satellites and airplanes. However, due to the limited resolution of satellite images or photos taken from distant airplanes, there still be uncertainties in detailed morphological evolution of lava flows.
The purpose of our observation includes, 1 sampling of pyroclasts near the central cone in order to investigate the condition of magma chamber and magma ascent process, and 2 taking high resolution 4K images in order to clarify the characteristic morphology of the lava flow covering the island.
During the three days operation, we were successfully able to sample g of pyroclasts and to take 1. Conducting UAV's takeoff and landing on a ship was not an easy task.
The ship size is tons. On the ship deck, there are several structures which can interfere with the helicopter. The most practical system for permanent isolation of radioactive wastes in granitic and pelitic environments may be one which specifically tailors the waste form to the environment. This is true because if recrystallization of the waste form takes place within the half-lives of the hazardous radionuclides, it is likely to be the rate-controlling step for release of these nuclides to the ground-water system.
The object of the proposed waste- form research at Los Alamos Scintific Laboratory LASL is to define a phase assemblage which will minimize chemical reaction with natural fluids in a granitic or pelitic environment. All natural granites contain trace amounts of all fission product elements except Tc and many contain minor amounts of these elements as major components of certain accessory phases.
Observation of the geochemistry of fission-product elements has led to the identification of the natural minerals as target phases for research. A proposal is made to experimentally determine the amounts of fission product elements which can stably be incorporated into the phases listed below and to determine the leachability of the assemblage this produced using fluids typical of the proposed environments at the Nevada Test Site. This approach to waste isolation satisfies the following requirements: Localization of foot-and-mouth disease - RNA synthesis on newly formed cellular smooth membranous vacuoles.
Viral RNA synthesis in foot-and-mouth disease infected bovine kidney cell cultures was associated throughout the infectious period with newly formed smooth membranous vacuoles. Membrane formation was measured by choline uptake. The site of RNA synthesis was determined by electron microscopic examination of autoradiograms of incorporated [ 3 H] uridine.
Both membrane formation and RNA synthesis became signifcant at 2. Percent density distributions of developed silver grains on autoradiograms showed that almost all RNA synthesis was concentrated on the smooth vacuoles of infected cells.
Histogram analysis of grain density distributions established that the site of RNA synthesis was the vacuolar membrane. The newly formed smooth membrane-bound vacuoles were not seen to coalesce into the large vacuolated areas typical of poliovirus cytopathogenicity. Protogalaxy interactions in newly formed clusters: Galaxy luminosities, colors, and intergalactic gas.
The role of protogalaxy interactions in galactic evolution is studied during the formation of galaxy clusters. In the early stages of the collapse, coalescent encounters of protogalaxies lead to the development of a galactic luminosity function. Once galaxies acquire appreciable random motions, mutual collisions between galaxies in rich clusters will trigger the collapse of interstellar clouds to form stars.
This provides both a source for enriched intracluster gas and an interpretation of the correlation between luminosity and color for cluster elliptical galaxies. Other observational consequences that are considered include optical, X-ray, and diffuse nonthermal radio emission from newly formed clusters of galaxies. The influence of microwave irradiation on thermal properties of main rock-forming minerals.
The sample will burst into fragment when the thermal stress induced by thermal expansion greater than the ultimate strength of the rock after microwave irradiation. Microwave-assisted rock fragmentation has been illustrated to be potentially beneficial for mineral processing, mining and geotechnical engineering.
In order to have a comprehensive understanding on the influence of microwave on thermo-mechanical properties of rocks , it is necessary to investigate the interaction effect between microwaves and the main rock-forming minerals. In this work, eleven rock-forming minerals were tested in a multimode cavity at 2. It was observed that different rock-forming minerals present very different susceptibility induced by microwave treatment. Enstatite presents the strongest microwave absorption capacity by a large margin and most of the rock-forming minerals are weak microwave absorbers.
It is significant that the results can be used to predict the heating behaviors of rocks subjected to microwave energy. Furthermore, the SEM-EDX elemental analysis demonstrates that the microwave absorption capacity of rock-forming minerals could link to the contribution of the ferrum, which may influence the interacting mechanisms between microwaves and the rock-forming minerals. Ore- forming environment and ore- forming system of carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposit in China.
It is proposed that there are four types of ore- forming systems about carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposit in China based on systematic study on structural environment and distribution regularity of uraniferous construction of marine carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock in China: It is propounded definitely that it is controlled by margin rift valley ore- forming systems and continental margin rifting deep fracture zone ore- forming systems for large-scale uranium mineralization of carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock type uranium deposit in China, which is also controlled by uraniferous marine carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock construction made up of silicalite, siliceous phosphorite and carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock , which settled down accompany with submarine backwash and sub marine volcanic eruption in margin rift valley and continental margin rifting mineralizing environment.
Continental mar gin rift valley and continental margin rifting thermal sedimentation or exhalation sedimentation is the mechanism of forming large-scale uraniferous marine carbonaceous-siliceous-pelitic rock construction Early Palaeozoic Era in China or large-scale uranium-polymetallic mineralization. Seizures beget seizures in temporal lobe epilepsies: Do temporal lobe epilepsy TLE seizures in adults promote further seizures? Clinical and experimental data suggest that new synapses are formed after an initial episode of status epilepticus, however their contribution to the transformation of a naive network to an epileptogenic one has been debated.
Recent experimental data show that newly formed aberrant excitatory synapses on the granule cells of the fascia dentate operate by means of kainate receptor-operated signals that are not present on naive granule cells.
Therefore, genuine epileptic networks rely on signaling cascades that differentiate them from naive networks. Recurrent limbic seizures generated by the activation of kainate receptors and synapses in naive animals lead to the formation of novel synapses that facilitate the emergence of further seizures.
This negative, vicious cycle illustrates the central role of reactive plasticity in neurological disorders. Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate differences in bones quality between newly formed bone and cortical bone formed around titanium alloy implants by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy.
As a result of narrow scan measurement at 4 weeks, the newly formed bone of C1s, P2p, O1s, and Ca2p were observed at a different peak range and strength compared with a cortical bone. At 8 weeks, the peak range and strength of newly formed bone were similar to those of cortical bone at C1s, P2p, and Ca2p, but not O1s.
The results from this analysis indicate that the peaks and quantities of each element of newly formed bone were similar to those of cortical bone at 8 weeks, suggestive of a strong physicochemical resemblance.
Newly postulated neurodevelopmental risks of pediatric anesthesia: General anesthetics can induce apoptotic neurodegeneration and subsequent maladaptive behaviors in animals. Retrospective human studies suggest associations between early anesthetic exposure and subsequent adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes.
The relevance of animal data to clinical practice is unclear and to our knowledge the causality underlying observed associations in humans is unknown.
We reviewed newly postulated neurodevelopmental risks of pediatric anesthesia and discuss implications for the surgical care of children. Similar adverse pathological and clinical effects occur after untreated pain. Anesthetic neurotoxicity in animals develops only after exposure above threshold doses and durations during a critical neurodevelopmental window of maximal synaptogenesis in the absence of concomitant painful stimuli.
Anesthetic exposure outside this window or below threshold doses and durations shows no apparent neurotoxicity, while exposure in the context of concomitant painful stimuli is neuroprotective. Retrospective human studies suggest associations between early anesthetic exposure and subsequent adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes, particularly after multiple exposures.
The causality underlying the associations is unknown. Ongoing investigations may clarify the risks associated with current practice. Surgical care of all patients mandates appropriate anesthesia.
Neurotoxic doses and the duration of anesthetic exposure in animals may have little relevance to clinical practice, particularly surgical anesthesia for perioperative pain.
The causality underlying the. We find that the anti-directed loops approach each other and reconnect continually. The connectivity of the loops is changed and new loops are formed and stack together.
The stacked loops are sharply bent, implying that they are greatly impacted by the magnetic tension force. When another reconnection process takes place, one new loop is formed and stacks with the previously formed ones. Meanwhile, the stacked loops retract suddenly and move toward the balance position, performing an overshoot movement, which led to an oscillation with an average period of about 45 s.
The oscillation of newly formed loops after magnetic reconnection in the chromosphere is observed for the first time. We suggest that the stability of the stacked loops is destroyed due to the attachment of the last new loop and then suddenly retract under the effect of magnetic tension. Because of the retraction, another lower loop is pushed outward and performs an oscillation with a period of about 25 s.
The different oscillation periods may be due to their difference in three parameters, i. Different selective pressures lead to different genomic outcomes as newly-formed hybrid yeasts evolve. Full Text Available Abstract Background Interspecific hybridization occurs in every eukaryotic kingdom. While hybrid progeny are frequently at a selective disadvantage, in some instances their increased genome size and complexity may result in greater stress resistance than their ancestors, which can be adaptively advantageous at the edges of their ancestors' ranges.
While this phenomenon has been repeatedly documented in the field, the response of hybrid populations to long-term selection has not often been explored in the lab. To fill this knowledge gap we crossed the two most distantly related members of the Saccharomyces sensu stricto group, S. Temperature-selected isolates exhibited greater inherent and induced thermal tolerance than parental species and founding hybrids, and also exhibited ethanol resistance.
Ethanol-selected isolates were more ethanol tolerant than S. Relative to parental and founding hybrids, temperature-selected strains showed heritable differences in cell wall structure in the forms of increased resistance to zymolyase digestion and Micafungin, which targets cell wall biosynthesis. Conclusions This is the first study to show experimentally that the genomic fate of newly-formed interspecific hybrids depends on the type of selection they encounter during the course of evolution.
Forms of iron in soils on basement complex rocks of Kaduna state in The forms of iron extracted by different methods were studied in soils developed on four basement complex rocks within Northern Guinea Savanna of Nigeria namely: The study shows that forms of iron generally decreased in the order of total elemental iron It is thus important to know the OPR of H 2 newly formed on dust grain surfaces, in order to clarify the dependence of the observed OPR in space on the formation process.
Using an experimental setup designed to mimic interstellar medium environments, we measured the OPR of H 2 and D 2 formed on the surface of porous amorphous water ice held at 10 K.
We report for the first time the OPR value for newly formed D 2 , consistent with the expected LTE value at the high-temperature limit found by previous theoretical and experimental works on the determination of the OPR upon H 2 formation on surfaces at low temperature. The emergence of shared leadership in newly-formed teams with an initial structure of vertical leadership: The importance of high-quality leadership for team effectiveness is widely recognized, with recent viewpoints arguing shared leadership to be a more powerful predictor than vertical leadership.
Our findings demonstrated that the average team leadership strengthened over the course of the week p Clinical-decision-making is of decisive importance to how evidence-based practice is put into practice. Schools of Nursing have a responsibility to teach and train nursing students to make clinical decisions within a frame of evidence-based practice. Clinical decision-making among nurses has been Existing research has mainly focused on promoting and inhibiting factors for implementation of evidence-based practice and incorporation of research evidence in the clinical-decision.
Little attention has been given to the nurses' behavior The aim of the study is to combine and synthesize results from qualitative research. In vitro receptivity of carbonate rocks to endolithic lichen- forming aposymbionts. Sterile cultured isolates of lichen- forming aposymbionts have not yet been used to investigate lichen- rock interactions under controlled conditions. In this study mycobionts and photobiont of the endolithic lichens Bagliettoa baldensis and Bagliettoa marmorea were isolated and inoculated with coupons of one limestone and four marbles commonly employed in the Cultural Heritage framework.
After one year of incubation, microscopic observations of polished cross-sections were performed to verify if the typical colonization patterns observed in the field may be reproduced in vitro and to evaluate the receptivity of the five lithotypes to endolithic lichens.
The mycobionts of the two species developed both on the surface of and within all the lithotypes, showing different penetration pathways which depend on mineralogical and structural features and highlight different receptivity. By contrast, algae inoculated with the coupons did not penetrate them. Observations suggest that the hyphal penetration along intrinsic discontinuities of rocks is a relatively fast phenomenon when these organisms are generally considered as slow-growing.
Samples from limestone outcrops and abandoned marble quarries, colonized by the same species or other representatives of Verrucariaceae, showed penetration pathways intriguingly similar to those reproduced in vitro and highlighted that lichen-driven erosion processes only increase the availability of hyphal passageways after a long-term colonization.
These results show that in vitro incubation of sterile cultured lichen- forming ascomycetes with rock coupons is a practicable experimental system to investigate the lichen- rock interactions under controlled conditions and, together with analysis in situ, may support decisions on conservative treatments of historical and cultural significant stone substrata.
Variation of rock-forming metals in sub-annual increments of modern Greenland snow. Modern snowpack from central south Greenland was sampled in sub-seasonal increments and analysed for a suite of major, minor and trace rock-forming metals K, Rb, Cs, Ca, Sr, Ba. There is a sharp seasonal concentration maximum for all six metals that comes in summer, later than mid-June.
Metal concentrations in all other parts of the year's snowpack are up to 10 or more times smaller. The concentration maximum is preceded by low values in autumn-winter, very low values in early-mid-spring, and moderate-to-high values in late spring early summer; this pattern is seen consistently in three separate time stratigraphic intervals representing the same seasonal periods, spanning the time interval The absolute concentration values of the snow strata representing the low-concentration portion of the year, autumn-winter-spring, may vary substantially from year to year, by a factor of two, or more.
The finding that all rock-forming metals are at a sharp concentration maximum in late summer contrasts with the interpretations of several other studies in high-latitude northern regions.
Those studies have reported a broad maximum of continental dust-associated metals in late winter and spring. However samples of the other studies have mostly come from regions farther to the north, and the analyses have emphasized industrial pollutant metals rather than the matched rock-forming suite of the present study. The metals measured were chosen to give information about the origin and identity of the rock and soil dusts, and sea salts, present as impurities in the snow. Metal ratios indicate that the dusts in the snowpacks are of continental origin and from ferromagnesian rocks.
Source rock types for dusts in central south Greenland snow contrast with the felsic rock dusts of the Sierra Nevada, CA, annual snowpacks, and with the very felsic rock dusts in large south central Alaskan mountain glaciers. Samples in which masses of sea salt are much larger than those of rock dusts.
How galaxies form from, and are fueled by, gas from the intergalactic medium IGM remains one of the major unsolved problems in galaxy formation. These flows are thought to deposit gas and angular momentum into the circumgalactic medium resulting in disk- or ring-like structures, eventually coalescing into galaxies forming at filamentary intersections. We propose that this protodisk can only have recently formed from cold gas flowing directly from the cosmic web.
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of an exposed high-density polytetrafluoroethylene d-PTFE membrane in preventing epithelial migration in postextraction sockets. For this purpose, a histologic description of the newly formed soft tissue underlying the membrane is presented. The periodontal status of the adjacent teeth was also evaluated to assess the gingival response.
Ten premolar extraction sockets were treated. After tooth extraction, the sockets were filled with nanocrystalline hydroxyapatite and covered with d-PTFE membranes. Subperiosteal pockets were created to ensure the stability of the membranes. Membranes were left intentionally exposed and were atraumatically removed after 28 days.
At that time, a bioptic specimen of the newly formed soft tissue under the membranes was taken. All the histologic samples showed a dense connective tissue without epithelial cells and no signs of foreign body reaction.
No significant variation of the periodontal indices was observed on the teeth adjacent to the extraction sites. The study results indicate that exposed d-PTFE membranes can prevent epithelial migration in healing sockets without consequences on the periodontal health. New records of rare lichenicolous and lichen- forming fungi from volcanic rocks in SW Poland.
Full Text Available Records of two lichenicolous and nine lichen- forming fungi found in the southwestern part of Poland are presented. All of the reported species are very rare and they have only a few scattered localities in the country. One of them, Lecanora pannonica, is reported for the second time from Poland. Additionally, the new, contemporary records of Cercidospora macrospora, Rhizocarpon disporum, R.
These species were known only from historical collections in the study area. Furthermore, Lecidea fuscoatra has been found a new host for Sagediopsis barbara. All of the localities of recorded species were found on natural outcrops of basalt rocks. Use of newly developed standardized form for interpretation of high-resolution CT in screening for pneumoconiosis. This paper reports that although the International Labour Office ILO standard for interpretation of the posteroanterior chest radiograph has been available for 10 years, there has been no attempt to standardize the high-resolution CT HRTC readings for screening of pneumoconiosis.
An integrated respirator surveillance program for 87 workers exposed to inorganic dust was conducted. This program consisted of a detailed occupational exposure history, physical symptoms and signs, spirometry, chest radiography, and HRCT. Two groups of workers with known exposure were studied with HRCT.
Group 1 had normal spirometry results and chest radiographs, and group 2 had abnormalities at spirometry or on chest radiographs. The HRCT scans were read independently of the clinical findings and chest radiographs. With the newly developed HRCT form , individual descriptive abnormality localized severity, and overall rating systems have been developed and compared for inter- and intraobserver consistency.
The structure environment, rock -magma system, mineral- forming series and pattern of volcanic mineral- forming of uranium deposit in southeast of China. The rock -magma system of this period formed around the turning period from pressure to tension in the continent margin of southeast China, which is mainly characterized by the appearance of A-type granite and alkaline, sub-alkaline rocks trachyte, trachyandensite, trachybasalt, basic rock alkaline basalt.
The uranium deposit is controlled by the base rift of dissection to the mantle, the volcanic basin is of the double characteristics of transversal rift valley basin early period ad tension rift valley basin laster period. The leading role of the deep source is stressed in terms of internal- forming series of volcanic uranium deposits is considered to exist; and also in terms of internal- forming series of volcanic uranium deposits is considered to exist; and also in terms of mineral- forming patterns, the multi-pattern led by the deep-source is stressed, including the mineral- forming pattern of uranium deposit of continental thermos, repeated periphery mineral- forming pattern of uranium deposit and the mineral- forming pattern of uranium deposit of rising pole-like thermos.
Ten suggestions are put forward to the next mineral-search according to the above thoughts. Those forests are located around the world in different climate zones effecting widely on atmospheric composition via new particle formation. The Boreal forests solely cover one third of the forests extent and are one of the largest vegetation environments, forming a circumpolar band throughout the northern hemisphere continents, with a high potential to affect climate processes .
In order to more fully understand the possible climatic effects of the forests, the properties of secondary organic aerosols SOA in varying conditions e.
In this study, we applied the UFO-TDMA ultrafine organic tandem differential mobility analyzer  and the UFH-TDMA ultrafine hygroscopicity tandem differential mobility analyzer  methods parallel to shed light on the evolution of the nucleation and Aitken mode particle compositions via physic-chemical properties at a virgin boreal forest site in varying conditions. We also carried out a statistical analysis using linear correlations in order to explain the variability in.
The newly -discovered Late Cretaceous igneous rocks in the Nuocang district: Products of ancient crust melting trigged by Neo-Tethyan slab rollback in the western Gangdese. The newly discovered polymetallic Nuocang Pb-Zn skarn deposit is located in the southern Lhasa subterrane, western Gangdese, Tibet.
The orebodies occur primarily at the contact zone between the Angjie Formation and the Linzizong volcanic rocks of Dianzhong Formation LDF that are dominated by basaltic andesitic tuff and rhyolite. Zircon U-Pb dating for two granite porphyries yield ages of They have pronounced negative Eu anomalies mean 0. All these features suggest that they are the product of anatexis of ancient crustal materials heated by mantle-derived magma, the latter derived from Neo-Tethyan slab dehydration mechanisms.
Combined with the previous geochronological and geochemical data, we proposed that the Nuocang district of western Gangdese in the southern Lhasa subterrane contains an ancient block, and the igneous rocks here were triggered by the Neo-Tethyan slab rollback starting at 82 Ma. The western Gangdese contains more ancient continental crustal materials and Late Cretaceous-Eocene Linzizong volcanic rocks and coeval intrusions than in the eastern Gangdese.
Evaluation of interim and final waste forms for the newly generated liquid low-level waste flowsheet. Since cesium and strontium are the predominant radionuclides in NGLLLW and MVST supernate, this review is focused on the stabilization and solidification of solid wastes containing these radionuclides in cement, glass, and polymeric materials-the principal waste forms that have been tested with these types of wastes.
Several studies have shown that both cesium and strontium are leached by distilled water from solidified cement, although the leachabilities of cesium are generally higher than those of strontium under similar conditions.
The situation is exacerbated by the presence of sulfates in the solution, as manifested by cracking of the grout. Additives such as bentonite, blast-furnace slag, fly ash, montmorillonite, pottery clay, silica, and zeolites generally decrease the cesium and strontium release rates. Lower cesium leach rates are observed from vitrified wastes than from grout waste forms.
However, significant quantities of cesium are volatilized due to the elevated temperatures required to vitrify the waste. Hence, vitrification will generally require the use of cleanup systems for the off-gases to prevent their release into the atmosphere. Those derived from mafic igneous rock gabbro frequently show erosion problems because of land use, which is aggravated by the mountainous relief and soil attributes.
This study evaluated the main pedogenic processes of soils formed from mafic igneous rock gabbro in a toposequence in Pinheiral RJ by characterizing physical, chemical, mineralogical and micromorphological attributes. The profiles are located at different sections in the toposequence: The soil morphology of profiles P2, P3 and P4 is expressed by a brownish-red color, blocky structure with high to moderate development, clay films and clay loam to clay texture, with a textural B horizon.
P1 shows less development, with a shallow profile and the sequence of horizons A-C-Cr. The soils have a slightly low degree of weathering, identified by the presence of pyroxenes and feldspars in the sand fraction and montorillonite in the clay fraction; the sum of bases is from 15 to 24 cmolc kg-1; and cation exchange capacity CEC is from 12 to 22 cmolc kg A significant presence of clay skins was observed in the field and was confirmed by thin section analysis, which showed features such as argillans, ferriargillans and iron nodules.
Full Text Available Ultrasound imaging is a first-line diagnostic method for screening the thrombus. During thrombus aging, the proportion of red blood cells RBCs in the thrombus decreases and therefore the signal intensity of B-scan can be used to detect the thrombus age.
To avoid the effect of system gain on the measurements, this study proposed using the empirical mode decomposition EMD of ultrasound image as a strategy to classify newly formed and aged thrombi. The results showed that the performance of using signal amplitude of B-scan to reflect the thrombus age depends on gain.
However, the IER is less affected by the gain in discriminating between fresh and aged thrombi. In the future, ultrasound B-scan combined with the EMD may be used to identify the thrombus age for the establishment of thrombolytic treatment planning.
On the interaction of pure and impure supercritical CO2 with rock forming minerals in saline aquifers: An experimental geochemical approach. The aim of this experimental study was to evaluate and compare the geochemical impact of pure and impure CO 2 on rock forming minerals of possible CO 2 storage reservoirs. This geochemical approach takes into account the incomplete purification of industrial captured CO 2 and the related effects during injection, and provides relevant data for long-term storage simulations of this specific greenhouse gas.
Batch experiments were conducted to investigate the interactions of supercritical CO 2 , brine and rock-forming mineral concentrates albite, microcline, kaolinite, biotite, muscovite, calcite, dolomite and anhydrite using a newly developed experimental setup. Experiments with mixtures of supercritical CO 2 These acids should be responsible for the general larger amount of cations dissolved from the mineral phases compared to experiments using pure CO 2.
For pure CO 2 a pH of around 4 was obtained using silicates and anhydrite, and 7—8 for carbonates. Dissolution of carbonates was observed after both pure and impure CO 2 experiments. Anhydrite was corroded by approximately 50 wt. Silicates do not exhibit visible alterations during all experiments but released an increasing amount of cations in the reaction fluid during experiments with impure CO 2. Nonetheless, precipitated secondary carbonates could not be identified.
Collection of data over the Boundary Canyon detachment fault BCDF facilitated measurement of numerous lithologies representing a contact between the relatively unmetamorphosed Grapevine Mountains allochthon and the metamorphosed core complex of the Funeral Mountains autochthon. These included quartz-rich sandstone, quartzite, conglomerate, and alluvium; muscovite-rich schist, siltstone, and slate; and carbonate-rich dolomite, limestone, and marble, ranging in age from late Precambrian to Quaternary.
Hyperspectral data were reduced in dimensionality and processed to statistically identify and map unique emissivity spectra endmembers. Abrupt variations in image data emissivity amongst pelitic schists corresponded to amphibolite; these rocks represent gradation from greenschist- to amphibolite-metamorphic facies lithologies.
Although the full potential of LWIR hyperspectral image data may not be fully utilized within this study area due to lack of measurable spectral distinction between rocks of similar bulk mineralogy, the high spectral resolution of the image data was useful in characterizing silicate- and carbonate-based sedimentary and meta-sedimentary rocks in proximity to fault contacts, as well as for interpreting some mineral mixtures.
Application of decision tree algorithm for identification of rock forming minerals using energy dispersive spectrometry. Rapid and automated mineral identification is compulsory in certain applications concerning natural rocks.
Among all microscopic and spectrometric methods, energy dispersive X-ray spectrometers EDS integrated with scanning electron microscopes produce rapid information with reliable chemical data. Although obtaining elemental data with EDS analyses is fast and easy by the help of improving technology, it is rather challenging to perform accurate and rapid identification considering the large quantity of minerals in a rock sample with varying dimensions ranging between nanometer to centimeter.
Furthermore, the physical properties of the specimen roughness, thickness, electrical conductivity, position in the instrument etc. In order to minimize the effects of these physical constraints and develop an automated mineral identification system, a rule induction paradigm has been applied to energy dispersive spectral data.
Decision tree classifiers divide training data sets into subclasses using generated rules or decisions and thereby it produces classification or recognition associated with these data sets. A number of thinsections prepared from rock samples with suitable mineralogy have been investigated and a preliminary 12 distinct mineral groups olivine, orthopyroxene, clinopyroxene, apatite, amphibole, plagioclase, K- feldspar, zircon, magnetite, titanomagnetite, biotite, quartz , comprised mostly of silicates and oxides, have been selected.
Energy dispersive spectral data for each group, consisting of reference and test analyses, have been acquired under various, non-standard, physical and electrical conditions. The reference X-Ray data have been used to assign the spectral distribution of elements to the specified mineral groups. Consequently, the test data have been analyzed using. Trace element partitioning in rock forming minerals of co-genetic, subduction-related alkaline and tholeiitic mafic rocks in the Ural Mountains, Russia.
The partitioning of trace elements between rock forming minerals in igneous rocks is largely controlled by physical and chemical parameters e. In the present study partition coefficients for REE between hornblende, orthopyroxene, feldspars, apatite and clinopyroxene in a suite of co-genetic alkaline and tholeiitic mafic rocks from the Ural Mountains Russia were calculated. The results give insights to the influence of the chemical composition of the parental melt on the partitioning behaviour of the REE.
Nepheline-bearing, alkaline melanogabbros tilaites are assumed to represent the most fractionated products of the melt that formed the ultramafic cumulates in zoned mafic-ultramafic complexes in the Ural Mountains.
Co-genetic with the latter is a suite of olivine gabbros, gabbronorites and hornblende gabbros formed from a tholeiitic parental melt. Negative anomalies for the HFSE along with low Nb and Ta contents and a positive Sr anomaly indicate a subduction related origin of all parental melts. The nepheline gabbros consist predominantly of coarse-grained clinopyroxene phenocrysts in a matrix of fine grained clinopyroxene, olivine, plagioclase, K-feldspar and nepheline with accessory apatite.
The tholeiitic gabbros have equigranular to porphyric textures with phenocrysts of olivine, pyroxene and hornblende in a plagioclase rich matrix with olivine hornblende, pyroxene and accessory apatite. These values are about two times higher than published data e. Evolved rocks like trachyte occur as minor components of many plume-related basaltic ocean islands e. Trachytes from Mauritius Indian Ocean suggest otherwise. Initial eNd values cluster at 4. Fractional crystallization models starting with a basaltic parent fail, because when plagioclase joins olivine in the crystallizing assemblage, residual liquids become depleted in Al2O3, produce no nepheline, and do not approach trachytic compositions.
Mauritian basalts and trachytes do not fall near the ends of known miscibility gaps, eliminating liquid immiscibility processes. A remaining possibility is that the trachytes represent direct, small-degree partial melts of fertile, perhaps metasomatized mantle. This is supported by the presence of trachytic glasses in many mantle xenoliths, and experimental results show that low-degree trachytic melts can be produced from mantle peridotites even under anhydrous conditions.
If some feldspar is left behind as a residual phase, this would account for the negative Ba, Sr and Eu anomalies observed in Mauritian trachytes. Two trachyte samples that are less depleted in these elements contain xenocrysts of anorthoclase, Al-rich cpx and Cl-rich kaersutite that are out of equilibrium with host trachyte magmas. However, memory for the word form itself is rarely assessed among preschool-age children.
When it is, children are typically asked to verbally recall the forms , and they generally perform at floor on such tests. We taught 12 novel word-referent pairs via ostensive naming to sixteen 4-toyear-olds and measured their memory for the word forms after a week-long retention interval using the new spatially-supported form recognition test.
We also measured their memory for the word-referent links and the generalization of the links to untrained referents with commonly used recognition tests. Children demonstrated memory for word forms at above chance levels; however, their memory for forms was poorer than their memory for trained or generalized word-referent links.
When in error, children were no more likely to select a foil that was a close neighbor to the target form than a maximally different foil. Additionally, they more often selected correct forms that were among the first six than the last six to be trained.
Overall, these findings suggest that children are able to remember word forms after a limited number of ostensive exposures and a long-term delay. However, word forms remain more difficult to learn than word-referent links and there is an upper limit on the number of forms that can be learned within a given period of time.
Evaluation of Rock Joint Coefficients. A computer method for evaluation of rock joint coefficients is described and several applications are presented. The method is based on two absolute numerical indicators that are formed by means of the Fourier replicas of rock joint profiles. The first indicator quantifies the vertical depth of profiles and the second indicator classifies wavy character of profiles. The absolute indicators have replaced the formerly used relative indicators that showed some artificial behavior in some cases.
This contribution is focused on practical computations testing the functionality of the newly introduced indicators. Activation of a remote 1-year old emotional memory interferes with the retrieval of a newly formed hippocampus-dependent memory in rats.
The persistent intrusion of remote traumatic memories in people with post-traumatic stress disorder PTSD may contribute to the impairment of their ongoing hippocampal and prefrontal cortical functioning. In the current work, we have developed a rodent analogue of the intrusive memory phenomenon. We studied the influence of the activation of a remote traumatic memory in rats on their ability to retrieve a newly formed hippocampus-dependent memory.
Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were given inhibitory avoidance IA training, and then 24 h or 1, 6 or 12 months later, the same rats were trained to learn, and then remember across a min delay period, the location of a hidden escape platform in the radial-arm water maze RAWM. When IA-trained rats spent the min delay period in the IA apparatus, they exhibited intact remote 1-year old memory of the shock experience. More importantly, activation of the rats' memory of the shock experience profoundly impaired their ability to retrieve the newly formed spatial memory of the hidden platform location in the RAWM.
Our finding that reactivation of a remote emotional memory exerted an intrusive effect on new spatial memory processing in rats provides a novel approach toward understanding how intrusive memories of traumatic experiences interfere with ongoing cognitive processing in people with PTSD.
They may have been caused by the impact that created Endurance Crater, or they might have arisen when water leftover from the rock 's formation dried up.
A third possibility is that much later, after the rock was formed , and after the crater was created, the rock became wet once again, then dried up and developed cracks. Opportunity has spent the last 14 sols investigating Escher, specifically the target dubbed 'Kirchner,' and other similar rocks with its scientific instruments.
This image was taken on sol Aug. The graph above shows that rocks located deeper into 'Endurance Crater' are chemically altered to a greater degree than rocks located higher up. This chemical alteration is believed to result from exposure to water. Specifically, the graph compares ratios of chemicals between the deep rock dubbed 'Escher,' and the more shallow rock called 'Virginia,' before red and blue lines and after green line the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity drilled into the rocks.
As the red and blue lines indicate, Escher's levels of chlorine relative to Virginia's went up, and sulfur down, before the rover dug a hole into the rocks. This implies that the surface of Escher has been chemically altered to a greater extent than the surface of Virginia.
Scientists are still investigating the role water played in influencing this trend. These data were taken by the rover's alpha particle X-ray spectrometer. Full Text Available Aiming at surrounding rock damage induced by dynamic disturbance from blasting excavation of rock -anchored beam in rock mass at moderate or far distance in underground cavern, numerical model of different linear charging density and crustal stress in underground cavern is established by adopting dynamic finite element software based on borehole layout, charging, and rock parameter of the actual situation of a certain hydropower station.
Through comparison in vibration velocity, contour surface of rock mass excavation, and the crushing extent of excavated rock mass between calculation result and field monitoring, optimum linear charging density of blast hole is determined. Studies are also conducted on rock mass vibration in moderate or far distance to blasting source, the damage of surrounding rock in near-field to blasting source, and crushing degree of excavated rock mass under various in situ stress conditions.
Results indicate that, within certain range of in situ stress, the blasting vibration is independent of in situ stress, while when in situ stress is increasing above certain value, the blasting vibration velocity will be increasing and the damage of surrounding rock and the crushing degree of excavated rock mass will be decreasing. Physical properties and rock physics models of sediment containing natural and laboratory- formed methane gas hydrate.
This paper presents results of shear strength and acoustic velocity p-wave measurements performed on: These measurements show that hydrate increases shear strength and p-wave velocity in natural and reconstituted samples. The proportion of this increase depends on 1 the amount and distribution of hydrate present, 2 differences, in sediment properties, and 3 differences in test conditions.
Stress-strain curves from the Mallik samples suggest that natural gas hydrate does not cement sediment grains. However, stress-strain curves from the Ottawa sand containing laboratory- formed gas hydrate do imply cementation is present. Acoustically, rock physics modeling shows that gas hydrate does not cement grains of natural Mackenzie Delta sediment. Natural gas hydrates are best modeled as part of the sediment frame. This finding is in contrast with direct observations and results of Ottawa sand containing laboratory- formed hydrate, which was found to cement grains Waite et al.
It therefore appears that the microscopic distribution of gas hydrates in sediment, and hence the effect of gas hydrate on sediment physical properties, differs between natural deposits and laboratory- formed samples. This difference may possibly be caused by the location of water molecules that are available to form hydrate. Models that use laboratory-derived properties to predict behavior of natural gas hydrate must account for these differences. Appearance of newly formed mRNA and rRNA as ribonucleoprotein-particles in the cytoplasmic subribosomal fraction of pea embryos.
At this time the radioactivity was associated with cytoplasmic structures heavier than 80S and RNP particles of S, S, S and S which are presumed to be free mRNP particles in plants. When the pulse-labeled embryos were incubated for a further 60 min in an isotope-free medium, the labeled 17S and 25S rRNA emerged in the cytoplasm, together with labeled heterodisperse and S RNAs. More radioactivity accumulated in the regions of the polysome, S and S particles.
The results of analysis of RNAs extracted from the whole cytoplasm, polysome or subribosomal fractions indicated that small subunits of newly formed ribosomes appear more rapidly in the cytoplasm than new large subunits, which accumulate for a while as free particles in the cytoplasm than are incorporated into polysomes. The actinomycin treatment which caused preferential inhibition of rRNA synthesis reduced the accumulation of free, newly formed ribosome subunits and partially permitted detection of the presumed mRNP particles in the subribosomal region even after the chase treatment.
Full Text Available Introduction: Parent materials as one of the main soil formation factors have a great impact on the concentration of heavy metals in the soil. Heavy metals are released to the soil during weathering and pedogenic processes. Ultrabasic rocks are known as the potential natural source of heavy metals, especially Ni, Cr and Mn in the soil. Average concentrations of Ni and Cr in the soils are 84 and 34 mg kg-1, respectively; while, in soil derived from ultrabasic parent material, the concentration of these elements may reach up to mg kg Binaloud zone in northeastern composed of different geological materials.
There is a narrow band of ophiolitic rocks in this zone that located along Mashhad city. Living PRA models attempt to address limitations of traditional PRA models in a limited sense by including temporary changes in plant and system configurations. However, information on plant component health are not considered. This often leaves risk monitors using living PRA models incapable of conducting evaluations with dynamic degradation scenarios evolving over time. There is a need to develop enabling approaches to solidify risk monitors to provide time and condition-dependent risk by integrating traditional PRA models with condition monitoring and prognostic techniques.
This paper presents estimation of system risk evolution over time by integrating plant risk monitoring data with dynamic PRA methods incorporating aging and degradation. Several online, non-destructive approaches have been developed for diagnosing plant component conditions in nuclear industry, i.
In this work the component performance measures at U. Aging and degradation is modeled within the Level-1 PRA framework and is applied to several failure modes of pumps and can be extended to a range of components, viz. According to this concept, a plant specific evaluation of the severe accident phenomenology as well as analyses of the accident progression for the severe accident scenarios has been performed.
This paper will present examples from the different areas described above. Root canal preparation in endodontics: With the advent of the Nd: YAG laser system another method of accomplishing proper cleaning and shaping is evaluated. Single rooted teeth were radiographed bucco- lingually and mesio-distally and were divided into 2 groups.
The first group was accessed and the root canal systems cleaned and shaped with a step back technique utilizing hand files and gates glidden burs. At completion of the procedure the teeth were again radiographed at the same positions as those prior to the procedure. The teeth were split longitudinally and examined under scanning electron microscopy to assess cleaning.
The second group of teeth were accessed, and cleaning and shaping was accomplished using the Nd: YAG laser in combination with hand files and rotary instruments. These teeth were subjected to the same analysis as those in the first group. The before and after radiographs of each group were subjected to image analysis to determine effectiveness of the two methods in shaping the canal systems.
We will discuss the ability of Nd: YAG to clean and shape root canal spaces and remove smear layer and organic tissue remnants from those areas.
Probabilistic risk assessment course documentation. Systems analysis topics include system modeling such as fault tree and event tree construction, failure rate data, and human Reliability.
In addition to system modeling, the major PRA tasks of accident process analysis, and consequence analysis are presented. An explanation of the results of these activities, and the techniques by which these results are derived, forms the basis for a discussion of these topics.
An additional topic which is presented in this course is the topic of PRA management, organization, and evaluation. The Angra 1 fire PRA project. The project was started January of and it is foreseen to be finished in the middle of the next year. Starting from the Internal Events Angra 1 PRA model Level 1 the project aims to be a comprehensive plant-specific fire analysis to identify the possible consequences of a fire in the plant vital areas which threaten the integrity of systems relevant to the safety, challenging the safety functions and representing a risk of accident that can lead to a core damage.
The main tasks include the plant boundary and partitioning, the fire PRA component selection and the identification of the possible fire scenarios ignition, propagation, detection, extinction and hazards considering human failure events to establish the fire-induced risk model for quantification of the risk for nuclear core damage taking into account the plant design and its fire protection resources.
This work presents a general discussion on the methodology applied to the completed steps of the project. The probabilistic risk analysis PRA is studied and its historical development is briefly presented.
Human factors, sofware and guides, improvement of utility management of nuclear power operations are discussed. The development of a standardized LWR design, optimized for safety, reliability and economy is studied.
The impact of risk assessments in public acceptance of nuclear power is discussed. Probabilistic risk assessment PRA reference document. This document describes the current status of probabilistic risk assessment PRA as practiced in the nuclear reactor regulatory process. The PRA studies that have been completed or are under way are reviewed. The levels of maturity of the methodologies used in a PRA are discussed.
Insights derived from PRAs are listed. The potential uses of PRA results for regulatory purposes are discussed. Status Report and Guidance for Regulatory Application. The comments received on the draft have been considered for this final version of the report.
Changing perspective on tissue processing - comparison of microwave histoprocessing method with the conventional method. Full Text Available Background: Histopathological examination of tissues requires sliver of formalin fixed tissue that has been chemically processed and then stained with Haematoxylin and Eosin. The time honored conventional method of tissue processing, which requires 12 to 13 hours for completion, is employed at majority of laboratories but is now seeing the.
PRA research and the development of risk-informed regulation at the U. Nuclear Regulatory Commission NRC have played an essential role in support of the agency's move towards risk-informed regulation. These research activities have provided the technical basis for NRC's regulatory activities in key areas; provided PRA methods , tools, and data enabling the agency to meet future challenges; supported the implementation of NRC's PRA Policy Statement by assessing key sources of risk; and supported the development of necessary technical and human resources supporting NRC's risk-informed activities.
These case studies also show that such research can take a considerable amount of time, and that the incorporation of research results into regulatory practice can take even longer. The need for sustained effort and appropriate lead time is an important consideration in the development of a PRA research program aimed at helping the agency address key sources of risk for current and potential future facilities.
Dosimetry comparison of pelvimetry methods using conventional radiographs and CT. To determine the fetal and maternal exposure to radiation by use of thermoluminescent dosimeters in order to compare conventional and CT-scan X-ray. Dosimetry was performed with an anthropomorph phantom. Thermoluminescent dosimeters were positioned on the surface and in the depth of the phantom. Digital radiography of the pelvis was performed according to a standard technique. CT-scan of the pelvis was performed according to the Buthiau's technique.
With CT, the dose reached 0. With standard technique, the doses reached 0. A review on mathematical methods of conventional and Islamic derivatives. Despite the impressive growth of risk management tools in financial institutions, Islamic finance remains miles away behind the conventional institutions. Islamic finance products need to comply with the syariah law and prohibitions, therefore they can use fewer of the available risk management tools compared to conventional.
Derivatives have proven to be the effective hedging technique and instrument that broadly being used in the conventional institutions to manage their risks.
However, derivatives are not generally accepted as the legitimate products in Islamic finance and they remain controversial issues among the Islamic scholars. This paper reviews the evolution of derivatives such as forwards, futures and options and then explores the mathematical models that being used to solve derivatives such as random walk model, asset pricing model that follows Brownian motion and Black-Scholes model.
Other than that, this paper also critically discuss the perspective of derivatives from Islamic point of view. In conclusion, this paper delivers the traditional Islamic products such as salam, urbun and istijrar that can be used to create building blocks of Islamic derivatives. Comparative study of the geostatistical ore reserve estimation method over the conventional methods. Part I contains a comprehensive treatment of the comparative study of the geostatistical ore reserve estimation method over the conventional methods.
The conventional methods chosen for comparison were: Briefly, the overall result from this comparative study is in favor of the use of geostatistics in most cases because the method has lived up to its theoretical claims. A good exposition on the theory of geostatistics, the adopted study procedures, conclusions and recommended future research are given in Part I. Part II of this report contains the results of the second and the third study objectives, which are to assess the potential benefits that can be derived by the introduction of the geostatistical method to the current state-of-the-art in uranium reserve estimation method and to be instrumental in generating the acceptance of the new method by practitioners through illustrative examples, assuming its superiority and practicality.
These are given in the form of illustrative examples on the use of geostatistics and the accompanying computer program user's guide. In Finland, a plant specific, Level 1 and 2 Probabilistic Risk Analysis PRA is required as a prerequisite for issuing the construction license and operating license.
The use of PRA in various applications and the main insights are presented. These applications include e. PRA support to the design of SSCs Systems, Structures and Components , definition of pre-service and in-service inspection programs, evaluation of the safety classification of SSCs, development of procedures, training and in definition of risk informed technical specifications, periodic testing and on-line preventive maintenance programs.
In addition, PRA shall be used to assess the adequacy and coverage of the phase and system commissioning programs. Also the potential risks related to commissioning tests during nuclear test phase, shall be assessed with the help of PRA. In OL3 project, risk informed approach has been applied on a large scale for the first time in the design, construction and commissioning of a new NPP unit.
Pre-nuclear commissioning tests have started at OL3 site and the plant is foreseen to begin commercial operation in Decisions have been made to launch new NPP projects.
Teollisuuden Voima Oyj TVO is planning to build a new unit OL4 at Olkiluoto site and a new utility, Fennovoima, is planning to build one unit at one of two alternative green field sites in Northern parts of Finland. Insights from PRAs of operating NPPs have been used in the evaluation of possible new sites to ensure that the site specific concerns and environmental conditions are adequately taken into account in the design of SSCs.
Although the seismic activity at the Olkiluoto site is low, a comprehensive seismic risk analysis is being conducted. Its results support the review of the deterministic seismic design. For new sites, a probabilistic seismic hazard analysis has been carried out for the determination of the design earthquake. Experiences from OL3 licensing have been utilized in the. GOES-R is the next generation weather satellite primarily to help understand the weather and help save human lives.
PRA was initially adopted and implemented in the operational phase of manned space flight programs and more recently for the next generation human space systems. Since its first use at NASA, PRA has become recognized throughout the Agency as a method of assessing complex mission risks as part of an overall approach to assuring safety and mission success throughout project lifecycles. PRA is now included as a requirement during the design phase of both NASA next generation manned space vehicles as well as for high priority robotic missions.
It also represents a pioneering effort to integrate risks from both Spacecraft SC and Ground Segment GS to fully assess the probability of achieving mission objectives. PRA analysts were actively involved in system engineering and design engineering to ensure that a comprehensive set of technical risks were correctly identified and properly understood from a design and operations perspective.
The analysis included an assessment of SC hardware and software, SC fault management system, GS hardware and software, common cause failures, human error, natural hazards, solar weather and infrastructure such as network and telecommunications failures, fire. PRA findings directly resulted in design changes to reduce SC risk from micro-meteoroids. PRA results also led to design changes in several SC subsystems, e. Conventional and more recent methods of radiodiagnosis of mammary carcinoma.
The methods are listed and briefly characterized. They are categorized by energy used and for some, future applications are given. X-ray methods are believed to be the most frequently used and deemed to remain so. Necessity for Model Shaking.
Probabilistic risk assessment PRA is increasingly used as a technique to help ensure design and operational safety of nuclear power plants NPPs in the nuclear industry. Hence, there is considerable interest in the PRA quality, and as a result, a peer review of the PRA model is typically performed to ensure its technical adequacy as part of the PRA development process or for any other reason e.
For the PRA model to be used as a valuable vehicle for risk-informed applications, it is essential that the PRA model must yield correct and physically meaningful accident sequences and minimal cutsets for specific plant configurations or conditions relating to the applications. Hence, the existing peer review guidelines need to be updated to reflect these insights so that risk-informed applications could be more actively pursued with confidence.
Full Text Available Probabilistic risk assessment PRA has been used in various technological fields to assist regulatory agencies, managerial decision makers, and systems designers in assessing and mitigating the risks inherent in these complex arrangements. Has PRA delivered on its promise? How do we gage PRA performance? Are our expectations about value of PRA realistic? Are there disparities between what we get and what we think we are getting form PRA and its various derivatives?
Do current PRAs reflect the knowledge gained from actual events? How do we address potential gaps? These are some of the questions that have been raised over the years since the inception of the field more than forty years ago. This paper offers a brief assessment of PRA as a technical discipline in theory and practice, its key strengths and weaknesses, and suggestions on ways to address real and perceived shortcomings.
Probabilistic risk assessment PRA has been used in various technological fields to assist regulatory agencies, managerial decision makers, and systems designers in assessing and mitigating the risks inherent in these complex arrangements. Tomographs based on non- conventional radiation sources and methods. Computer techniques for tomographic reconstruction of objects X-rayed with a compact plasma focus PF are presented.
The implemented reconstruction algorithms are based on stochastic searching of solutions of Radon equation, using Genetic Algorithms and Monte Carlo methods.
Numerical experiments using actual projections were performed concluding the feasibility of the application of both methods in tomographic reconstruction problem. Inspector activities are either scheduled or are in response to a particular status of a plant. Acute renal failure could activate the RAAS function. Since the occurrence of nuclear power plant accidents in the Fukushima Daichi nuclear power station, the regulatory framework on severe accident SA has been discussed in Japan.
Initiating events with large contribution to core damage frequency are the loss of all AC powers station blackout and the large LOCA. The top of dominant accident sequences is the simultaneous occurrence of station blackout and large LOCA. Important components to core damage frequency are electric power supply equipment.
It needs to keep in mind that the results are influenced on site geologic characteristic to a greater or lesser. In the process of analysis, issues such as conservative assumptions related to damages of building or structure and success criteria for excessive LOCA are left to be resolved. These issues will be further studied including thermal hydric analysis in the future. Conventional estimating method of earthquake response of mechanical appendage system.
Generally, for the estimation of the earthquake response of appendage structure system installed in main structure system, the method of floor response analysis using the response spectra at the point of installing the appendage system has been used. On the other hand, the research on the estimation of the earthquake response of appendage system by the statistical procedure based on probability process theory has been reported. The development of a practical method for simply estimating the response is an important subject in aseismatic engineering.
In this study, the method of estimating the earthquake response of appendage system in the general case that the natural frequencies of both structure systems were different was investigated. First, it was shown that floor response amplification factor was able to be estimated simply by giving the ratio of the natural frequencies of both structure systems, and its statistical property was clarified.
Next, it was elucidated that the procedure of expressing acceleration, velocity and displacement responses with tri-axial response spectra simultaneously was able to be applied to the expression of FRAF.
The applicability of this procedure to nonlinear system was examined. Certification plan for safety and PRA codes. An action matrix, checklists, and a time schedule have been included in the plan.
These items identify what is required to achieve certification of the codes. A description of each of the codes was provided in Reference 4. The action matrix for the configuration control plan identifies code specific requirements that need to be met to achieve the certification plan's objectives. The checklist covers the specific procedures that are required to support the configuration control effort and supplement the software life cycle procedures based on QAP Reference 7.
A qualification checklist for users establishes the minimum prerequisites and training for achieving levels of proficiency in using configuration controlled codes for critical parameter calculations. The deformation of structural alloys presents problems for power plants and aerospace applications due to the demand for elevated temperatures for higher efficiencies and reductions in greenhouse gas emissions.
The materials used in such applications experience harsh environments which may lead to deformation and failure of critical components. In recognising this issue, a detailed understanding of creep is essential for the success of these designs by ensuring components do not experience excessive deformation which may ultimately lead to failure. To achieve this, a variety of parametric methods have been developed to quantify creep and creep fracture in high temperature applications.
This study reviews a number of well-known traditionally employed creep lifing methods with some more recent approaches also included.
The first section of this paper focuses on predicting the long-term creep rupture properties which is an area of interest for the power generation sector. The second section looks at pre-defined strains and the re-production of full creep curves based on available data which is pertinent to the aerospace industry where components are replaced before failure.
Full text of publication follows: The pressurized light water cooled, medium power MWt IRIS International Reactor Innovative and Secure has been under development for four years by an international consortium of over 21 organizations from ten countries. The plant conceptual design was completed in and the preliminary design is nearing completion. The pre-application licensing process with NRC started in October, IRIS has been primarily focused on establishing a design with innovative safety characteristics.
The first line of defense in IRIS is to eliminate event initiators that could potentially lead to core damage. In IRIS, this concept is implemented through the 'safety by design' approach, which allows to minimize the number and complexity of the safety systems and required operator actions. The end result is a design with significantly reduced complexity and improved operability, and extensive plant simplifications to enhance construction.
To support the optimization of the plant design and confirm the effectiveness of the safety by design approach in mitigating or eliminating events and thus providing a significant reduction in the probability of severe accidents, the PRA is being used as an integral part of the design process. This first assessment is a result of a PRA model including internal initiating events.
During this assessment, several assumptions were necessary to complete the CDF evaluation. In particular Anticipated Transients Without Scram ATWS were not included in this initial assessment, because their contribution to core damage frequency was assumed. The PRA estimated the frequency of core damage accidents caused by operational occurrences during power operation of the reactor.
The document had the purpose of informing the DOE system engineers and site representatives about how the information in the PRA might be used to help guide their activities. Opportunities existed to develop a document somewhat different than those developed previously by other programs. The opportunities existed because the audience is different: How do you use PRA to support an operating program?
It will discuss the importance of providing management with a clear presentation of the analysis, applicable assumptions and limitations, along with estimates of the uncertainty. This presentation will show how the use of PRA by the Shuttle Program has evolved overtime and how it has been used in the decision making process providing specific examples.
The tsunami probabilistic risk assessment PRA. Example of accident sequence analysis of tsunami PRA according to the standard for procedure of tsunami PRA for nuclear power plants. Industry group had been conducting analysis of Tsunami PRA for PWR based on the standard under the cooperation with electric utilities.
This article introduced overview of the standard and examples of accident sequence analysis of Tsunami PRA studied by the industry group according to the standard. The standard consisted of 1 investigation of NPP's composition, characteristics and site information, 2 selection of relevant components for Tsunami PRA and initiating events and identification of accident sequence, 3 evaluation of Tsunami hazards, 4 fragility evaluation of building and components and 5 evaluation of accident sequence.
Based on the evaluation, countermeasures for further improvement of safety against Tsunami could be identified by the sensitivity analysis. Top event prevention analysis: A deterministic use of PRA.
This paper describes the application of Top Event Prevention Analysis. The analysis finds prevention sets which are combinations of basic events that can prevent the occurrence of a fault tree top event such as core damage. The problem analyzed in this application is that of choosing a subset of Motor-Operated Valves MOVs for testing under the Generic Letter program such that the desired level of safety is achieved while providing economic relief from the burden of testing all safety-related valves.
A brief summary of the method is given, and the process used to produce a core damage expression from Level 1 PRA models for a PWR is described. The analysis provides an alternative to the use of importance measures for finding the important combination of events in a core damage expression. Design Consideration for the Crew Exploration Vehicle.
Phased-mission based event trees and fault trees are used to model a lunar sortie mission of the CEV - involving the following phases: The analysis is based upon assumptions, preliminary system diagrams, and failure data that may involve large uncertainties or may lack formal validation.
Furthermore, some of the data used were based upon expert judgment or extrapolated from similar componentssystemsT. Lastly, the PRA model was used to determine changes in risk as the system configurations or key parameters are modified. This report provides a review of published probabilistic risk assessments PRAs , the associated methodology guidance documents, and the psychological literature to identify parameters important to seismic human reliability analysis HRA.
The HRA of human actions during and after a seismic event is an area subject to many uncertainties and involves significant analyst judgment. The approach recommended by this report is based on seismic HRA methods and associated issues and concerns identified from the review of these referenced documents that represent the current state-of-the- art knowledge and acceptance in the seismic HRA field.
This study updates the post-core damage phenomena to be consistent with the most recent information and includes accident management activities that should be modeled in the Level 2 PRA.
This technical paper deals only with the incorporation of operator actions into the Level 2 PRA based on a comprehensive study of the Seabrook Station accident response procedures and guidance. The paper describes the process used to identify the key operator actions that can influence the Level 2 PRA results and the development of success criteria for these key operator actions. An important benefit of this assessment was the identification of Seabrook specific accident management insights that can be fed back into the Seabrook Station accident management procedures and guidance or the training provided to plant personnel for these procedures and guidance.
CAM visual stimulation with conventional method of occlusion treatment in amblyopia: Using of CAM visual stimulation along with conventional occlusion will further improve visual acuity and stereopsis in amblyopic children. These findings recommended the CAM visual stimulation as an accompanying and complementary method in amblyopia treatment.
During the probabilistic risk assessment PRA for the proposed Yucca Mountain nuclear waste repository, a problem came up that could not be handled by most PRA computer codes. This problem deals with dependencies between sequential events in time. Two similar scenarios that illustrate this problem are LOOP nonrecovery and sequential wearout failures with units of time.
The purpose of this paper is twofold: Full Text Available Conventional construction methods are still widely practised, although many researches have indicated that this method is less effective compared to the IBS construction method.
The existence of the IBS has added to the many techniques within the construction industry. This study is aimed at making comparisons between the two construction approaches. Case studies were conducted at four sites in the state of Penang, Malaysia. Two projects were IBS-based while the remaining two deployed the conventional method of construction.
Based on an analysis of the results, it can be concluded that the IBS approach has more to offer compared to the conventional method.
Among these advantages are shorter construction periods, reduced overall costs, less labour needs, better site conditions and the production of higher quality components. The radioprotective effect of a new aminothiol PRA. We examined the radioprotective effect of aminothiol 2-N-propylamine-cyclohexane thiol PRA on a human leukemic cell line K following various radiation doses 5,7. In addition, the anti tumorigenic potential of 10 nM PRA was shown by the inhibition of crown gall formation induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens.
The radioprotective potency of PRA is 10 5- 10 6 times higher than that of the aminothiol WR N 2-mercaptoethyl -1,3-diamino propane whose protective effect is in the 0.
Full Text Available We examined the radioprotective effect of aminothiol 2-N-propylamine-cyclo-hexanethiol PRA on a human leukemic cell line K following various radiation doses 5, 7. In addition, the antitumorigenic potential of 10 nM PRA was shown by the inhibition of crown gall formation induced by Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The radioprotective potency of PRA is times higher than that of the aminothiol WR N- 2-mercaptoethyl-1,3-diaminopropane whose protective effect is in the 0.
Applications of PRA in nuclear criticality safety. Traditionally, criticality accident prevention at Los Alamos has been based on a thorough review and understanding of proposed operations of changes to operations, involving both process supervision and criticality safety staff. The outcome of this communication was usually an agreement, based on professional judgement, that certain accident sequences were credible and had to be reduced in likelihood either by administrative controls or by equipment design and others were not credible, and thus did not warrant expenditures to further reduce their likelihood.
The extent of analysis and documentation was generally in proportion to the complexity of the operation but did not include quantified risk assessments. During the last three years nuclear criticality safety related Probabilistic Risk Assessments PRAs have been preformed on operations in two Los Alamos facilities. Based on these two applications and an appreciation of the historical criticality accident record frequency and consequences it is apparent that quantified risk assessments should be performed very selectively.
Two decades of PRA: The goal of this study was to assess the risk to the public posed by the nuclear power plants operating in the US. Some three and one-half years later in October , the study group issued its final report titled The Reactor Safety Study, also commonly known by its document number WASH Because it was issued at a time of heated public debate about nuclear safety, WASH received considerable critical review.
A number of utilities undertook such studies of their own plants. The field of probabilistic risk assessment PRA developed from these efforts. Among these are how to effectively communicate the results of the analysis. Just what does a probability of one in a million mean? Is there a de minimis probability - one so small that it can be ignored? How should society make decisions under substantial uncertainty? A number of these questions pose real challenges for the future. The core damage frequency due to internal events, seismic events and typhoons are evaluated in this model.
The methodology and results considering the recent implementation of the 5th emergency diesel generator and automatic boron injection function are presented.
The dominant sequences of this PRA model are discussed, and some possible applications of this living model are proposed. In vivo precision of conventional and digital methods for obtaining quadrant dental impressions. Digital impression systems provide the ability to take these impressions very quickly; however, few studies have investigated the accuracy of the technique in vivo. The aim of this study is to assess the precision of digital quadrant impressions in vivo in comparison to conventional impression techniques.
Conventional and digital radiographic methods in the detection of simulated external root resorptions: Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate and compare the efficacy of conventional and digital radiographic methods in the detection of simulated external root resorption cavities and also to evaluate whether the detectability was influenced by resorption cavity sizes.
Thirty-two selected teeth from human dentate mandibles were radiographed in orthoradial, mesioradial and distoradial aspect using conventional film Insight Kodak F-speed; Eastman Kodak, Rochester, NY and a digital sensor Trophy RVG advanced imaging system with 0. Three dental professionals, an endodontist, a radiologist and a general practitioner, evaluated the images twice with a one-week time interval. No statistical significance was seen in the first observation for both conventional and digital radiographic methods in the detection of simulated external root resorptions and for small and medium cavities but statistical difference was noted in the second observation P methods.
Considering the methodology and the overall results, conventional radiographic method F-speed performed slightly better than the digital radiographic method in the detection of simulated radiographic method but better consistency was seen with the digital system. Overall size of the resorption cavity had no influence on the performance of both methods and suggests that initial external root resorption lesion is not well-appreciated with both the methods as compared to the advanced lesion.
Reliability and availability tracking. A living PRA allows updates and sensitivity analyses by the plant owner throughout the lifetime of a plant. Recently, event and fault trees from two major PRAs were placed in a computerized format. The above concept is well established for the Nuclear Power Plant evaluation. It has been also used for evaluation of processing facilities.
Presently both the tools and the experience exists to set up useful and viable living PRA models for nuclear and chemical processing plants to enhance risk management by the plant owners through in-house use of micro computer based models. Research on the typing of EH and the difference between the groups.
The clinical significance of computerized axial tomography CAT in consideration of conventional diagnostic methods. Regarding CAT of the extracranial region, the information available up to the meeting is reported on.
Comparison between laser terahertz emission microscope and conventional methods for analysis of polycrystalline silicon solar cell. Full Text Available A laser terahertz emission microscope LTEM can be used for noncontact inspection to detect the waveforms of photoinduced terahertz emissions from material devices. In this study, we experimentally compared the performance of LTEM with conventional analysis methods , e.
The results showed that LTEM was more sensitive to the characteristics of the depletion layer of the polycrystalline solar cell compared with EL, PL, and LBIC and that it could be used as a complementary tool to the conventional analysis methods for a solar cell. Comparison of the efficacy of conventional slow freezing and rapid cryopreservation methods for bovine embryos. Day 7 bovine morulae and early blastocysts were randomly assigned to one of four cryopreservation methods: A design method is presented that has been implemented in a software program to investigate the merits of conventional and unconventional transport airplanes.
Design and analysis methods are implemented in a design tool capable of creating a conceptual design based on a set of toplevel requirements. In this framework, the various areas are considered: Probabilistic models to provide information specific to advanced SMRs Representation of specific SMR design issues such as having co-located modules and passive safety features Use of modern open-source and readily available analysis methods Internal and external events resulting in impacts to safety All-hazards considerations Methods to support the identification of design vulnerabilities Mechanistic and probabilistic data needs to support modeling and tools In order to describe this framework more fully and obtain feedback on the proposed approaches, the INL hosted a technical exchange meeting during August This report describes the outcomes of that meeting.
Why conventional detection methods fail in identifying the existence of contamination events. Early warning systems are widely used to safeguard water security, but their effectiveness has raised many questions. To understand why conventional detection methods fail to identify contamination events, this study evaluates the performance of three contamination detection methods using data from a real contamination accident and two artificial datasets constructed using a widely applied contamination data construction approach.
Results show that the Pearson correlation Euclidean distance PE based detection method performs better for real contamination incidents, while the Euclidean distance method MED and linear prediction filter LPF method are more suitable for detecting sudden spike-like variation.
The analysis also revealed that the widely used contamination data construction approach is misleading. As a part of the PRA project, uncertainties of risk models and methods were systematically studied in order to describe them and to demonstrate their impact by way of results.
The uncertainty study was divided into two phases: The qualitative study contained identification of uncertainties and qualitative assessments of their importance. The PRA was introduced, and identified assumptions and uncertainties behind the models were documented. The most significant uncertainties were selected by importance measures or other judgements for further quantitative studies. The quantitative study included sensitivity studies and propagation of uncertainty ranges.
In the sensitivity studies uncertain assumptions or parameters were varied in order to illustrate the sensitivity of the models. The propagation of the uncertainty ranges demonstrated the impact of the statistical uncertainties of the parameter values. The Monte Carlo method was used as a propagation method. The most significant uncertainties were those involved in modelling human interactions, dependences and common cause failures CCFs , loss of coolant accident LOCA frequencies and pressure suppression.
The qualitative mapping out of the uncertainty factors turned out to be useful in planning quantitative studies. It also served as internal review of the assumptions made in the PRA. The sensitivity studies were perhaps the most advantageous part of the quantitative study because they allowed individual analyses of the significance of uncertainty sources identified. The uncertainty study was found reasonable in systematically and critically assessing uncertainties in a risk analysis.
The usefulness of this study depends on the decision maker power company since uncertainty studies are primarily carried out to support decision making when uncertainties are. To compute fire induced Core Melt probability, the results of hazard and propagation analyses were combined with the Core Melt frequency computed for the initiating event and the support state as determined by the fire considered.
From the PRA for internal event, the average value of this frequency was found 2. Using the average fire frequency the resulting fire induced Core Melt frequency is 1. Although high separation of safety systems is required in Italian PWR plants, the frequency of fire induced Core Melt can reach values not negligible with respect to Italian safety standards.
For this reason, fire PRA studies for the entire plant are considered necessary and should be performed with appropriate modifications of the methods used for the American plants in order to be able to estimate lower fire induced Core Melt frequencies. Bioelectrical impedance analysis and conventional method. Dry weight DW is an important concept related to patients undergoing hemodialysis. Conventional method seems to be time consuming and operator dependent. Bio impedance analysis BIA is a new and simple method reported to be an accurate way for estimating DW.
This study involved uremic patients, performed in Isfahan, Iran. In vivo precision of conventional and digital methods of obtaining complete-arch dental impressions.
Digital impression systems have undergone significant development in recent years, but few studies have investigated the accuracy of the technique in vivo, particularly compared with conventional impression techniques. The purpose of this in vivo study was to investigate the precision of conventional and digital methods for complete-arch impressions.
The impressions were then compared within and between the test groups. The cast surfaces were measured point-to-point using the signed nearest neighbor method. The precision ranged from The deviation pattern varied distinctly according to the impression method.
Conventional impressions showed the highest accuracy across the complete dental arch in all groups, except for the ALG group. Conventional and digital impression methods differ significantly in the complete-arch accuracy. Digital impression systems had higher local deviations within the complete arch cast; however, they achieve equal and higher precision than some conventional impression materials. Published by Elsevier Inc. The results are consistent with those of selective-chemically etched samples observed by TEM.
This method , using focused ion beam FIB sample preparation and conventional TEM, has the great advantage of simple sample preparation and high spatial resolution compared to other characterization methods , such as atomic capacitance microscopy, spreading resistance microscopy, and TEM combined with selective chemical etching.
This indicates that this method can be applicable to the analysis of FETs at the 65 nm or smaller node. Full Text Available Prevalence of Legionella in drinking water distribution systems is a widespread problem. Outbreaks of Legionella caused diseases occur despite various disinfectants are used in order to control Legionella. Therefore, research to develop more effective disinfection methods is still necessary.
Current and future applications of PRA in regulatory activities. Probabilistic Risk Assessments PRAs have proven valuable in providing the regulators, the nuclear plant operators, and the reactor designers insights into plant safety, reliability, design and operation.
Both the NRC Commissioners and the staff have grown to appreciate the valuable contributions PRAs can have in the regulatory arena, though I will admit the existence of some tendencies for strict adherence to the deterministic approach within the agency and the public at large. Any call for change, particularly one involving a major adjustment in approach to the regulation of nuclear power, will meet with a certain degree of resistance and retrenchment.
Change can appear threatening and can cause some to question whether the safety mission is being fulfilled. This skepticism is completely appropriate and is, in fact, essential to a proper transition towards risk and performance-based approaches. Our task in the Office of Nuclear Regulatory Research is to increase the PRA knowledge base within the agency and develop appropriate guidance and methods needed to support the transitioning process.
Methods for assessing phosphorus overfeeding on organic and conventional dairy farms. Phosphorus P losses from dairy farms can severely damage aquatic ecosystems, so it is important to have tools to assess overfeeding of P. This study screened P intake and faecal excretion of different P fractions in dairy cows on conventional and organic farms, compared the P feeding level of the herds against the recommendations and analysed different sampling and analysis methods for assessing the general status of P feeding on the farms.
On each farm, feed intake was registered for 10 cows representing four different lactation stages and their P intake was calculated and related to current recommendations. Faecal samples taken from the same cows were analysed for total P TP and soluble P. Milk production data for the cows were obtained from the Swedish official milk recording scheme. TP was determined in one slurry sample per farm. Conventional herds had higher P content in the ration than organic herds, and lactating cows in conventional herds had higher faecal concentrations of total and soluble P than those in organic herds.
However in dry cows, the P content of the ration and soluble P and TP in faeces did not differ between the two management systems. Soluble P was well correlated to TP in faeces, and both were good indicators of P overfeeding. Control is typically not mediated by automation, and there are fewer protective systems available. Therefore, an assessment of LP ampersand S related risk should include a greater emphasis on human reliability than such an assessment made for power operation conditions.
In order to properly account for the increase in human interaction and thus be able to perform a probabilistic risk assessment PRA applicable to operations during LP ampersand S, it is important that a comprehensive human reliability assessment HRA methodology be developed and integrated into the LP ampersand S PRA. The tasks comprising the comprehensive HRA methodology development are as follows: This paper describes the first task, i. Wreathall John and Co. Science Applications International Corp.
Therefore, an assessment of LP S related risk should include a greater emphasis on human reliability than such an assessment made for power operation conditions. In order to properly account for the increase in human interaction and thus be able to perform a probabilistic risk assessment PRA applicable to operations during LP S, it is important that a comprehensive human reliability assessment HRA methodology be developed and integrated into the LP S PRA.
New practical method for evaluation of a conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer. Testing a dryer is necessary to evaluate its absolute and comparative performance with other dryers.
A conventional flat plate continuous pistachio dryer was tested by a new practical method of mass and energy equilibrium. Results showed that the average power consumption and heat loss in three tests are The ratio of heat loss on power consumption showed that the efficiency of practical pistachios flat plate dryer is about Diagnostic utility of the cell block method versus the conventional smear study in pleural fluid cytology.
The cytological examinations of serous effusions have been well-accepted, and a positive diagnosis is often considered as a definitive diagnosis. It helps in staging, prognosis and management of the patients in malignancies and also gives information about various inflammatory and non-inflammatory lesions.
Diagnostic problems arise in everyday practice to differentiate reactive atypical mesothelial cells and malignant cells by the routine conventional smear CS method. To compare the morphological features of the CS method with those of the cell block CB method and also to assess the utility and sensitivity of the CB method in the cytodiagnosis of pleural effusions.
The study was conducted in the cytology section of the Department of Pathology. Sixty pleural fluid samples were subjected to diagnostic evaluation for over a period of 20 months. The CB method provides high cellularity, better architectural patterns, morphological features and an additional yield of malignant cells, and thereby, increases the sensitivity of the cytodiagnosis when compared with the CS method.
PRA and the implementation of quantitative safety goals. With the adoption by the U. Since then, PRA has been used more and more as an important factor in decision making, usually for specific issues. The nuclear industry has also employed PRA , sometimes to make its case on specific issues, sometimes to present a position on overall risk. The advent of the Zion and Indian Point PRAs, with their treatment of risks from fire, wind, and earthquakes, and their examination of the course of core melt accidents, has added a new dimension to the overall picture.
Although the NRC has stated that during the next two year evolution period, its quantitative design objectives and PRA are not to enter directly into the licensing process, many important issues will be influenced significantly by the results of risk and reliability studies. In fact, PRA may be coming into a position of great importance before the methodology, data, and process are sufficiently mature for the task. Large gaps still exist in our understanding of phenomena and in input information; and much of the final result depends on subjective input; large differences of opinion can and should be expected to persist.
Accepted standards for quality assurance, and adequacy and depth of independent, peer review remain to be formulated and achieved.
This paper will summarize the recently adopted NRC safety policy and the two-year evaluation plan, and will provide, by example, some words of caution concerning a few of the difficulties which may arise.
A Practical and Cost Effective Approach. LRO is defined as a measurement mission, not a science mission. It emphasizes the overall objectives of obtaining data to facilitate returning mankind safely to the Moon in preparation for an eventual manned mission to Mars. As the first mission in response to the President's commitment of the journey of exploring the solar system and beyond: This paper demonstrates how NASA's Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter Mission project office incorporated reliability analyses in assessing risks and performing design tradeoffs to ensure mission success.
The PRA is used to optimize the mission design within mandated budget, manpower, and schedule constraints.
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