Medical Cannabis for Peripheral Neuropathy Treatment- Part 3 of 5 The amounts of THC or CBD, as well as the numerous secondary. THC treatment reduced the development of atherosclerotic the plant-derived cannabinoid CBD attenuates inflammation, oxidative Diabetic Nephropathy. However, treatment options for diabetic retinopathy are limited and display poor efficacy These include cannabidiol (CBD) that activates, in preclinical models, . The marijuana-derived cannabinoids (−)-Δ9–tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and .
treating Diabetic Neuropathy in Cannabis-derived CBD
CBD-based treatments for pain are of particular interest to those who suffer from chronic or neuropathic pain conditions.
These conditions are rarely curable, so patients need to be given adequate long-term pain management techniques to allow them to maintain as good a quality of life as possible. Long-term use of regular painkillers is associated with a number of adverse health effects, such as increased risk of future heart and liver problems as well as a greater risk of developing an addiction.
The development of effective CBD therapeutics specifically geared towards those with chronic or neuropathic pain conditions could be revolutionary for those currently having to balance their need for pain medication with the risk of developing future health problems. The CBIS transdermal CBD patch The CBD patches available from CBIS come in two different formulations, one with a cannabinoid profile made to treat chronic pain in fibromyalgia, and the other targeting the treatment of neuropathic nerve pain in conditions such as diabetic neuropathy.
This is particularly helpful for those suffering from neuropathic pain, who often experience their pain in specific parts of the body as a result of their nerve damage. Transdermal treatment is also able to deliver a much more controlled release of the drug than an oral pill or intravenous injection of painkillers could. Absorption of the drug into the body occurs by either of the following: In June , the U.
The seizures that occur with these conditions are difficult to control with other medications. Three drugs , containing a synthetic form of THC, are also available on prescription for treating some specific kinds of anorexia and vomiting. Canada, the United Kingdom, and some European countries have also approved the use of Sativex, a mouth spray incorporating both CBD and THC that can help relieve pain and muscle spasms related to muscular sclerosis MS in adults.
Marijuana affects the body through cannabinoid receptors, which are part of the endocannabinoid system. As part of this system, the body creates some cannabinoids naturally. These cannabinoid receptors play a role in regulating:. Research is still ongoing and will continue to help us better understand the medicinal and adverse effects. Being overweight or obese is one of the most significant risk factors in the development of type 2 diabetes.
According to Diabetes U. For example, researchers in a study of 4, people, including current marijuana users and 1, past users, found that smaller waist size was associated with marijuana use.
On average, regular users had waists that were 1. This supports previous research , which indicates that obesity occurs less often among cannabis users than in non-users. Being able to use insulin effectively is vital for health. However, those with type 2 diabetes are less sensitive, or more resistant, to the effects of insulin in the body.
In a large study of 4, people, as mentioned above, scientists observed that the fasting insulin levels of users were 16 percent lower than former users and non-users. Their levels of insulin resistance were also 17 percent lower. A study of people with non-insulin-treated type 2 diabetes indicates that a form of THC:. Inflammation appears to play a role in the development of type 1 and type 2 diabetes and other chronic diseases. Some research suggests that the anti-inflammatory properties of CBD can treat the inflammation contributing to diabetes and associated complications.
Diabetic retinopathy is the leading cause of vision loss in those with diabetes. According to the National Eye Institute , it is also the most common cause of blindness in adults of working age. The results of research carried out on animals suggests that 1 to 4 weeks of CBD treatment provided 'significant protection' from diabetic retinopathy. Diabetic neuropathy is a common complication of diabetes.
It is a form of nerve damage that occurs most often in the legs and feet, but also in other parts of the body. Neuropathy can be extremely painful and fatal in some cases. A study on people with neuropathic foot pain suggests that inhaling cannabis can provide relief from diabetic neuropathic pain for several hours. Marijuana use for people with diabetes may have several benefits, but there are also disadvantages. If cannabinoids affect the metabolic system, insulin sensitivity, and appetite, this might also mean that frequent cannabis use could disrupt these functions.
The main disadvantage of using cannabis for diabetes is related to an increased appetite. This is a common side effect, which some people call "the munchies. This can be an issue for those with diabetes, as carbohydrates cause blood sugar to rise rapidly. Very high blood sugar levels may result in a medical emergency.
There are some concerns that marijuana users may not notice their blood sugar levels have dropped when they are intoxicated. It is also a worry that they may attribute symptoms of low blood sugar to the drug use. Other potential undesirable side effects of marijuana use include:. How the person uses marijuana will affect their risk of adverse effects. Also, smoking marijuana will affect a person differently from using a medical preparation that a doctor has recommended.
Also, since the FDA has not approved the use of marijuana or its compounds for treating diabetes, a person cannot be sure of the ingredients or quality of the product they obtain.
It is best to speak to a doctor before using any form of marijuana or other complementary therapy for diabetes. People can apply these directly to their hands and feet using a spray, to reduce the pain and tingling sensations associated with diabetic neuropathy.
A variety of CBD and hemp oils, lotions, and balms are available to purchase online. You should always purchase from a reputable supplier and check with a doctor first to ensure these products are safe for you to use.
You should also check that the product is legal in your state. Products that contain only CBD are non-psychoactive. Those with THC may have psychoactive effects. Before obtaining or using marijuana for any purpose, people should check if it is legal in their state. In the early stages, retinopathy is characterized by microaneurysm formation and microvascular lesions and later by extensive intraretinal hemorrhage that culminates in proliferative diabetic retinopathy with neovascularization and either preretinal or vitreous hemorrhage.
CB1 receptors are expressed in the layers of the retina, ciliary body, iris, and choroid, whereas CB2 receptors are localized to the retina. It has been shown that EC levels are elevated in the eyes of patients with diabetic retinopathy. The role of such an increase gained importance when we received insight into the role of CB1 receptor activation in diabetic retinopathy. Deletion of the CB1 receptor or treatment with a CB1 receptor antagonist prevented retinal cell death in a murine diabetes model.
These observations were supported by the fact that hyperglycemia up-regulated CB1 receptor expression and induced apoptosis in retina pigment epithelial cells, effects that were preventable with a CB1 receptor antagonist.
Interestingly, hyperglycemia also decreased FAAH expression, leading to a locally increased concentration of AEA and thereby increasing apoptosis via CB1 receptor signaling. The effect of CBD was also examined in experimental diabetic retinopathy. CBD was able to reduce oxidative stress, inflammation, cell death, and vascular hyperpermeability associated with diabetes. Furthermore, CBD also attenuated high glucose—induced endothelial cell dysfunction, ROS generation, and barrier disruption in primary human coronary artery endothelial cells.
The protective effects of CBD on retinal cell death were, at least in part, due to the reduction of tyrosine nitration of glutamine synthase in macroglial cells, thereby preventing the accumulation and excitotoxicity of glutamine through N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors. The typical presentation is chronic, length-dependent sensorimotor neuropathy, which develops in a background of long-standing hyperglycemia and is associated with alterations of microvessels; it can be stabilized with rigorous glycemic control.
Autonomic dysfunction and pain may develop over time as well. CB1 receptors are widely expressed throughout the central and peripheral nervous systems, whereas CB2receptors are primarily restricted to the cells of the peripheral nervous system, microglia, and dorsal horn neurons.
ECs are retrograde messengers with agonistic activity on presynaptic CB1 receptors, slowing neurotransmission. A good example of this effect is the suppression of nociceptive transmission in the periphery at the level of the posterior horn of the spinal cord.
It has been proven that these peripheral CB1 receptors play a key role in cannabinoid-induced analgesia. Interestingly, although CB1 and CB2agonists are effective in animal models of acute and chronic pain, in clinical trials, they only perform well in patients with chronic pain syndrome. Sativex spray containing THC and CBD is already approved for the treatment of pain in patients with multiple sclerosis and cancer pain unresponsive to opioid therapy in Canada, the United Kingdom, and Spain.
The first indication of the role of the ECS in diabetic neuropathy came from a murine diabetes model. Mechanical allodynia in diabetic rats can also be attenuated by treatment with a nonselective cannabinoid agonist. A highly significant finding was that both CB1 and CB2 agonists demonstrated antinociceptive effects in mice with streptozotocininduced diabetes, and there were no pronociceptive effects for either CB1 or CB2 antagonists. The natural cannabinoid CBD offers a further possible therapeutic advantage because it was able to attenuate the development of neuropathic pain.
This effect was associated with the restriction in the elevations of microglial density in the spinal cord and of phosphorylated pMAPK.
The first clinical trial with Sativex has already been conducted in patients with painful diabetic neuropathy. Although the trial failed to show any advantage compared with placebo treatment, further analysis is needed because several confounding factors were present.
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Can marijuana help people with diabetes?
Chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy (CIPN) occurs in 30–40% of pa ents ”CBD treatment attenuated the development of thermal Medical cannabis, plant-derived and synthe c cannabinoids against placebo or. Cannabis-Derived Agent May Offer Type 2 Diabetes Benefit (CBD) and Δ9- tetrahydrocannabivarin (THCV), the former derived from the cannabis plant A total 62 subjects with non–insulin-treated type 2 diabetes were randomized to one of Inhaled Cannabis Promising for Painful Diabetic Neuropathy. Most studies show moderately improved pain from inhaled cannabis use, but adverse neuropathy with allodynia, with receiving active treatment (THC- CBD of THC and CBD, nabilone, inhaled herbal cannabis, and plant-derived THC.