However, many states including Washington, D.C., have passed cannabis- related laws making medical marijuana with high levels of THC legal. The marijuana. This concerns medical experts because marijuana use during pregnancy is linked to lower birth weight and increased risk of both brain and behavioral problems. The plant also contains more than other chemicals, including more than compounds that are chemically related to THC, called cannabinoids.
to THC Related
Retrieved 12 January Retrieved 28 September Retrieved 9 October Retrieved 17 July American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language. See also article on Marijuana as a word.
Spanish Word Histories and Mysteries: Pharmacology, Toxicology, and Therapeutic Potential. National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved 19 April Retrieved 12 July Manual of forensic emergency medicine: Jones and Bartlett Publishers. World Drug Report Retrieved 26 June Retrieved 9 September Retrieved 30 October National Conference of State Legislatures.
Retrieved 3 July Retrieved 19 October National Institute of Drug Abuse. The term medical marijuana refers to using the whole unprocessed marijuana plant or its basic extracts to treat a disease or symptom.
Retrieved 8 September A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis". Current Pain and Headache Reports. The Brain and Body's Marijuana and Beyond. Archived from the original PDF on 30 April British Journal of Hospital Medicine. Cannabis Use and Dependence: Public Health and Public Policy. Cannabis in Medical Practice: University of Virginia Medical Center. Cannabinoid function in learning, memory and plasticity.
Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology. Marijuana Cannabis sativa L. Medical Toxicology of Drug Abuse: Synthesized Chemicals and Psychoactive Plants. Retrieved 14 July The American Journal on Addictions. Retrieved 1 November Are All These Hoops Necessary? Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology. Drugs and the Making of the Modern World.
Greater Than the Sum of Their Parts? Retrieved 7 April There is clear evidence that recreational cannabis can produce a transient toxic psychosis in larger doses or in susceptible individuals, which is said to characteristically resolve within a week or so of absence Johns European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience. Drug Abuse Warning Network. Department of Health and Human Services. Retrieved 8 May The New England Journal of Medicine.
Marijuana Use During Pregnancy and Lactation". Drug Use and Abuse. Archives of Internal Medicine. Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, and Treatment-a Systematic Review". Journal of Medical Toxicology. Archived from the original on Annals of the American Thoracic Society. Pooled analysis in the International Lung Cancer Consortium". International Journal of Cancer. Archives of Oral Biology. What the initial literature suggests regarding vapourized cannabis and respiratory risk".
Canadian Journal of Respiratory Therapy. Comorbidity of Mental and Physical Disorders. Karger Medical and Scientific Publishers. Annals of Internal Medicine. Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics. Journal of Addiction Medicine. The American Journal of Cardiology. Journal of Clinical Pharmacology Review. A meta-analytical review of structural brain alterations in non-psychotic users".
Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences. The most consistently reported brain alteration was reduced hippocampal volume which was shown to persist even after several months of abstinence in one study and also to be related to the amount of cannabis use Other frequently reported morphological brain alterations related to chronic cannabis use were reported in the amygdala the cerebellum and the frontal cortex These findings may be interpreted as reflecting neuroadaptation, perhaps indicating the recruitment of additional regions as a compensatory mechanism to maintain normal cognitive performance in response to chronic cannabis exposure, particularly within the prefrontal cortex area.
Evidence from Studies of Adult Users". Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews. This may reflect the multitude of cognitive tasks employed by the various studies included in these meta-analyses, all of which involved performing a task thereby requiring the participant to reorient their attention and attempt to solve the problem at hand and suggest that greater engagement of this region indicates less efficient cognitive performance in cannabis users in general, irrespective of their age.
Cannabis, cognition and addiction" PDF. Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology. A systematic review of human and animal evidence". Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology. Therefore, results indicate evidence for small neurocognitive effects that persist after the period of acute intoxication As hypothesized, the meta-analysis conducted on studies eval- uating users after at least 25 days of abstention found no residual effects on cognitive performance These results fail to support the idea that heavy cannabis use may result in long-term, persistent effects on neuropsychological functioning.
Journal of Clinical Pharmacology. Cannabis appears to continue to exert impairing effects in executive functions even after 3 weeks of abstinence and beyond. While basic attentional and working memory abilities are largely restored, the most enduring and detectable deficits are seen in decision-making, concept formation and planning.
Archives of General Psychiatry. The International Journal on Drug Policy. The New York Times. Systematic review of epidemiological evidence on adverse effects of cannabis use". Drug and Alcohol Review. Journal of Affective Disorders. From Bench to Bedside. Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs. Frontiers in Medicinal Chemistry. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine. Naunyn-Schmiedeberg's Archives of Pharmacology. Disposition of Toxic Drugs and Chemicals in Man. The Clinical Toxicology Laboratory: Contemporary Practice of Poisoning Evaluation.
Journal of Analytical Toxicology. Assessing The Science Base. National Academy of Sciences Press. Cannabis and Cannabinoid Research. United Nations Office on Drugs and Crime. Current Drug Abuse Reviews.
National Cannabis Prevention and Information Centre. Cannabis laws to be strengthened. The British Journal of Psychiatry. Concepts of Chemical Dependency. Global Trends in Cannabis Cultivation and its Control revised ed. Drugs and the American Dream: Drugs and Drug Policy: The Control of Consciousness Alteration. A New Look at the Scientific Evidence.
Is That a Word?: The series reports on research findings of national interest. Skip to main content. Contents Letter From the Director What is marijuana? What is the scope of marijuana use in the United States? What are marijuana effects? How does marijuana produce its effects? Does marijuana use affect driving? What are marijuana's long-term effects on the brain?
The use of antipsychotics , such as haloperidol and olanzapine , have provided complete relief of symptoms in case-reports. Acetaminophen has shown some benefit in case reports for alleviating headaches associated with cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. Acute episodes of cannabinoid hyperemesis typically last for 24—48 hours and the problem often resolves with long term stopping of cannabis use. Improvement can take one to three months to occur. Relapses are common, and this is thought to be possibly secondary to a lack of education as many people use or increase their use of cannabis due to their symptoms of nausea and vomiting.
The number of people affected is unclear as of ,  though the prevalence may be in the millions. Cannabinoid hyperemesis was first reported in the Adelaide Hills of South Australia in Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is not very well known, and some healthcare providers may view it as a "rare, kind of funny disease. It is unclear why cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is disproportionately uncommon in recognition of how widely used cannabis is throughout the world.
There may be genetic differences between cannabis users that affect one's risk for developing cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome. The pathophysiology of the syndrome is also unclear, especially with regards to the effect of cannabinoids on the gut. The long-term outcomes of patients that have suffered from cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome is unknown.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Diagnosis, Pathophysiology, and Treatment—a Systematic Review". Journal of Medical Toxicology. Cyclical hyperemesis in association with chronic cannabis abuse". Clinical diagnosis of an underrecognised manifestation of chronic cannabis abuse".
World Journal of Gastroenterology. A Case Series of 98 Patients". Current Drug Abuse Reviews. American Journal of Emergency Medicine. Retrieved 23 July
CBD vs. THC: What’s the Difference?
Hashish is a related product created from the resin of marijuana flowers and is usually smoked (by itself or in a mixture with tobacco) but can be ingested orally. Due to almost a century of misinformation about Cannabis, the distinction between Cannabis and its two primary species — hemp and. Marijuana is the most commonly used illegal drug in the United States, with million users in the past year,1 and marijuana use may have a wide range of.