Synonyms for factor at 11motors-club.info with free online thesaurus, antonyms, The other factor depended on the vexed question of means of communication. The individual has no control over some of these factors, including developmental determinants, genetic makeup, gender, and age. Other factors that influence. The objective of this paper is to analyze the influence that the internal and external motivations, as well as other factors can suppose for the appearance of the.
However, common sense dictates that it is a contributing factor. For example, a single serving of meat is considered to be 3 to 4 oz based on the Dietary Guidelines and the U.
Thus, an individual consuming a oz steak in a restaurant would be likely to report if asked in a dietary survey consuming a single serving of red meat, when in reality 4 to 5 servings were consumed.
The intake of soft drinks has increased dramatically in the last 40 years, as has the trend towards larger portion sizes Hill and Peters, While a standard serving of a soft drink in consisted of one 6-oz serving, the standard size serving today is 12 oz, and many vendors sell oz bottles almost exclusively. It is not unusual for individuals to consume some to 1, kcal per day from soft drinks in addition to their usual solid-food diet.
The change to larger portion sizes has been particularly apparent in fast-food restaurants where portion size has been used as a competitive tool. Full-service restaurants also have adopted the practice of serving larger meals. One of the distinguishing features of dining out in Europe compared with the United States is the difference in restaurant portion sizes, a factor that may contribute to the lower prevalence of obesity in Europe.
A recent trend analysis of portion size was conducted by Nielsen and Popkin Data were taken from four national food-consumption surveys covering the period to Food consumption was estimated as energy intake in kcal and as average portion sizes using food models to assist respondents in identifying portion size.
Results demonstrated that for foods eaten both inside and outside the home, portions sizes have increased for salty snacks, desserts, soft drinks, fruit drinks, french fries, hamburgers, cheese-burgers, and Mexican food.
Eating patterns that are appropriate for an active lifestyle may continue after the individual changes to a more sedentary lifestyle. Individuals for whom this observation has been made include athletes and a large percentage of people with increasing age and changing occupational responsibilities.
Athletes who are in training expend large amounts of energy each day and, for many organized sports, are encouraged to eat large quantities to maintain their weight at an artificially high level. When activity declines, the eating pattern established during training may not be adjusted to meet the new lower energy needs. The same is true of military personnel. During initial entry training, advanced individual training, and special forces training, large amounts of energy are expended on a daily basis.
By the time training is completed, individuals have been habituated to consume large amounts of food over a very short period of time. In many occupations, tasks that require more physical activity are assigned to younger workers.
As these workers age and acquire more responsibility, their work may become more sedentary, but eating patterns may not change. This pattern of decreased occupational energy expenditure with job promotion may be common in the military as well.
Privates, airmen, and junior noncommissioned officers are more active than senior officers and noncommissioned officers. Despite strong commitments to engage in daily physical fitness, which may be unchanged or even increased in more senior individuals, the decrease in activities of daily living and job performance can lead to a positive energy balance unless particular care is taken to reduce energy intake.
The ubiquitousness of vending machines and fast-food outlets ensures constant access to foods at work—usually foods with a high caloric content largely in the form of fat or refined CHO. A major contributing factor to the epidemic of obesity in recent years is likely the rise in the proportion of meals eaten away from home eating out , along with the increase in access to foods in virtually all locations. These changes have contributed in several ways to promoting obesity.
Because more families include two-wage earners, adults spend more time out of the home and do not have time to prepare meals as they customarily did in the past. Meals consumed at restaurants tend to be larger and have a higher caloric content than those consumed at home, mainly because of higher fat content and larger portion sizes Young and Nestle, In addition, a high percentage of meals eaten away from home are eaten in fast-food restaurants or consist of fast-food take-out.
The presence of food in virtually every circumstance of daily life, from fast-food outlets to vending machines, encourages and allows individuals to consume multiple calorically dense meals and snacks per day Bell et al. A number of phenotypic characteristics have been associated with the risk of weight gain, notably alterations in nonvolitional components of energy expenditure.
Energy expenditure can be divided into three main components:. RMR accounts for 60 to 75 percent of total energy expended in most adults. RMR is primarily related to the maintenance of fat-free mass, reflecting such activities as protein synthesis and breakdown, temperature and cellular homeostasis, and cardiovascular, pulmonary, and central nervous system function.
Metabolism associated with visceral organ mass makes the largest contribution to RMR, followed by that of skeletal muscle mass and adipose tissue Gallagher et al. RMR is consistently greater in men than in women due to the greater lean tissue mass of males. A low RMR relative to body size was found to predict weight gain Ravussin et al. RMR begins to decrease with age in the middle of the fourth decade. Gilliat-Wimberly and coworkers found that an association exists between physical activity and maintaining RMR in middle-aged women.
The thermic effect of feeding usually accounts for 5 to 10 percent of daily energy expenditure and varies between lean and obese individuals Astrup, Extensive studies have been inconsistent in supporting the view that excessive weight gain is secondary to a reduced thermic effect of food Tataranni et al.
Recent studies support the view that small, nonvolitional physical activities such as fidgeting may account for individual differences in energy expended with changes in energy balance Levine et al. Although relatively small in caloric magnitude, these activities may account for some of the between-individual differences observed in the regulation of body weight. These three phenotypic energy expenditure characteristics serve as markers for potential weight gain over the long term.
Many factors may contribute to these individual energetic differences, and the origin of these differences is the basis of intensive study. Cigarette smoking increases metabolic rate and may limit food intake, and weight gain is a common consequence of smoking cessation Perkins, ; Russ et al. The use of alcoholic beverages may also have an impact on body weight.
Energy consumed as alcohol that is in excess of need is converted to and stored as fat. Drinking alcohol has been shown to be associated with a greater energy intake than drinking nonalcoholic beverages, perhaps due to increased appetite Tremblay and St-Pierre, ; Tremblay et al.
A recent, large prospective study of a cohort of men ages 40 to 59 with a 5-year follow-up found that mean BMI increased significantly from the light-to-moderate to the very-heavy alcohol intake group.
Numerous drugs can produce weight gain and fat gain. These include glucocorticoids e. Most of these drugs are used for diseases that mandate separation from the military, but there are a number of drugs that may be taken by military personnel that are not deemed a rationale for separation.
Americans live in a culture in which food is abundant. A well-developed and efficient food transportation and storage system assures a readily available and affordable food supply throughout the entire year. The relative affluence of Americans has led to an increase in consumption of snack foods Morgan and Goungetas, and an increase in the proportion of foods of animal origin compared with that of foods of plant origin Senauer, Foods of animal origin are likely to be higher in energy and fat than comparable quantities of foods of plant origin.
The availability and abundance of food in the U. The per capita energy content of food entering the American marketplace increased about calories on a daily basis during this time period. In addition, fat intake has also increased steadily, although the relative intake of fat has been decreasing since the s Putnam and Allshouse, This decrease in fat intake has been associated with an increase in average total energy intake Bray and Popkin, Food-supply studies indicate that the increase in the number of calories consumed is accompanied by a shift in macronutrient consumption that reflects an increase in refined CHO consumption and a decrease in consumption of fruits and vegetables Putnam and Allshouse, Eating is an intensely social activity, and many eating habits are acquired in a familial or ethnic setting.
People tend to imitate the eating habits of their parents, so quantity and quality of foods eaten and meal patterns tends to be established early.
Traditions that arise around eating patterns in a more agrarian or active society may favor excess consumption. Ethnic groups differ in their perceptions about appropriate body size and what constitutes overweight Bhadrinath, ; Root, Studies of changes in diet with immigration and acculturation show, for example, that Japanese who migrated to California and Hawaii have tended to abandon the traditional low-fat Japanese diet for American food patterns Burchfiel et al.
The result has been a marked increase in weight among these immigrants. Similarly, Japanese children who remain in Japan, but whose diet is increasingly western, are also getting heavier Murata, ; Takada et al. Thus, dietary change is strongly associated with increased weight in both of these carefully studied population groups. The same phenomenon is observed in studies of South Asians who have migrated to the United Kingdom and who have modified their diet and physical activity patterns McKeigue et al.
Social class and socioeconomic status SES influence the prevalence of overweight. In many countries of the world, lower SES is linked to increased body weight Molarius et al.
In contrast, in some developing countries and primitive societies, obesity is considered a sign of affluence or fertility Molarius et al. However, some researchers who contend that obesity decreases economic status have disputed the belief that lower SES causes obesity in the United States.
For example, one study reported that women who were overweight in late adolescence or early adult life were more likely to have lower income, greater levels of poverty, and decreased rates of marriage than were normal-weight women with comparable degrees of disability Gortmaker et al.
The possibility exists that at least some cases of human obesity are due to viral infection. Five viruses and scrapie agents cause obesity in animals Bernard et al. One of these viruses is a human adenovirus, Ad, which has been shown to produce a syndrome of increased body fat and paradoxically decreased serum cholesterol and triglycerides in chickens and mice Dhurandhar et al.
Preliminary data have been reported that demonstrated similar results in monkeys Atkinson et al. Other preliminary studies suggest that humans with serum antibodies to Ad have a higher BMI and lower serum lipids than do Ad antibody-negative individuals Atkinson et al.
Humans in Bombay, India, who had serum antibodies to SMAM-1, an avian adenovirus, were noted to be significantly heavier and to have lower serum lipids compared with antibody-negative individuals. Viral antigen was found in the serum of two of the individuals with SMAM-1 antibodies Dhurandhar et al. More research is needed to confirm the hypothesis generated from the above data that some cases of human obesity might be due to a viral infection. Since adenoviruses are common cold viruses, the possibility of the spread of Ad and perhaps other obesity-producing viruses in the military community may be of significant concern.
The brief review of factors influencing body weight presented in this chapter demonstrate that maintaining a healthy body weight is an extremely complex issue. Maintenance of fitness and appropriate body-fat standards by military personnel is affected by each individual's genetics, developmental history, physiology, age, physical activity level, environment, diet, ethnicity, and social background. Turn recording back on. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U.
Prenatal Factors Although the data are subject to a variety of interpretations, it has been documented in both animals and humans that females who are severely food restricted during the first one to two trimesters of pregnancy have progeny who have a higher prevalence of obesity, diabetes, insulin resistance, and hypertension later in life.
Adiposity Rebound Adiposity increases from birth until approximately 1 year of age, then declines to a minimum at approximately 6 years of age. Adolescence Although only 30 percent of adult obesity begins during childhood, 70 percent of the adult obesity that begins in childhood may start during adolescence Dietz, Adulthood The period after adolescence has not been intensively studied, although approximately two-thirds of adult obesity begins after adolescence.
Animal Models of Genetic Obesity The strongest evidence for genetic weight-regulating mechanisms is the recent elucidation of single gene defects that are associated with excessive weight gain in animals. Familial Aggregation of Risk for Obesity Using the comprehensive Danish adoption registry, Stunkard and colleagues found that adopted children who were raised separately from their biological parents had body weights closer to those of their biological parents than to those of their adoptive parents.
FOOD Intake In conjunction with the importance of physical activity levels, energy intake must be matched to energy expenditure. Composition A high energy intake or an energy intake that is not adjusted downward with declining physical activity or age-related decreases in lean body mass is associated with the development of overweight or obesity in susceptible individuals.
Dietary Fat Research in both animals and humans suggests that high-fat low in complex CHOs diets promote obesity Astrup et al. Carbohydrates Several rationales have been postulated for the use of high-protein, low-CHO diets: Portion Size There is little research available on the role of portion size in the increasing prevalence of overweight in the United States.
Meal Patterns and Eating Habits Eating patterns that are appropriate for an active lifestyle may continue after the individual changes to a more sedentary lifestyle. Energy expenditure can be divided into three main components: Resting metabolic rate RMR , the rate of energy expended at rest, under thermo-neutral conditions, and in a post-absorptive state. Thermic effect of feeding, the incremental increase in energy expenditure after a meal is consumed due to the energy costs of absorption and the transport of nutrients, as well as the synthesis and storage of protein, fat, and CHO.
Some of the thermic effect of feeding may be mediated by sympathetic nervous system activity. Energy expended for physical activity, including involuntary movements associated with shivering, fidgeting, and postural control.
Family and Ethnicity Eating is an intensely social activity, and many eating habits are acquired in a familial or ethnic setting. Socioeconomic Status Social class and socioeconomic status SES influence the prevalence of overweight. The Potential Role of Viruses in the Etiology of Obesity The possibility exists that at least some cases of human obesity are due to viral infection. SUMMARY The brief review of factors influencing body weight presented in this chapter demonstrate that maintaining a healthy body weight is an extremely complex issue.
Copyright by the National Academy of Sciences. Clear Turn Off Turn On. Exposure to job strain exhibits a strong social gradient, which influences inequalities in the health of workers Bambra, Although the panel did not undertake a systematic comparison of workplace conditions in the United States and other countries, it did note that U. Other working conditions and work-related policies for U. Other important differences in work-related policies include employment protection and unemployment benefits, as well as family and sickness leave see Chapter 8.
There is scant literature comparing social and physical environmental features across countries. Here we provide selected examples of the ways in which levels or distributions of physical and social environments relevant to health might differ between the United States and other high-income countries.
Few data are available to make cross-national comparisons of exposure to harmful physical or chemical environmental hazards. There is, for example, little evidence that air pollution is a more severe problem in the United States than in other high-income countries Baldasano et al.
The heavy reliance on automobile transportation in the United States is linked to traffic levels, which contribute to air pollution and its health consequences Brook et al. Data on population exposures to air pollution across countries are relatively scarce OECD, b. One available measure is the concentration of particulate matter less than 10 micrometers in diameter PM An important factor that influences a range of environmental features relates to patterns of land use and transportation.
This characteristic has promoted dispersed automobile-dependent development patterns Transportation Research Board, with consequences for population density, land use mix, and walkability Richardson, , all of which may have health implications.
In , the United States had motor vehicles per 1, people compared with in the United Kingdom, in Sweden, in France, and in Germany World Bank, b.
Cities in the United States tend to be less compact and have fewer public transportation and nonmotorized travel options and longer commuting distances than cities in other high-income countries Richardson and Bae, Many European countries have strong antisprawl and pro-urban centralization policies that may contribute to environments that encourage walking and physical activity as part of daily life Richardson and Bae, International comparisons of the social environment are complicated by difficulties in obtaining comparable measures of social environments.
For example, aside from their direct links to injury mortality see Chapter 1 , violence and drug use may be indirect markers of social environmental features that affect other health outcomes. As noted in Chapters 1 and 2 , homicide rates in the United States are markedly higher than in other rich nations. There are fewer data to compare rates of other crimes across countries. As noted in Chapter 5 , certain forms of drug use which is often linked to other social environmental features also appear to be more prevalent in the United States than in other high-income countries.
Although Chapter 6 documented a long-standing trend of greater poverty and other social problems in the United States than in peer countries,. In particular, particles that are less than 2. Environmental Protection Agency, At least one study of cross-national differences in social capital found that the United States ranked at an intermediate level compared with other high-income countries in measures of interpersonal trust; the study also found that the United States ranked higher than many other countries on indicators of membership in organizations Schyns and Koop, A previous National Research Council report and a paper prepared for that study Banks et al.
However, the focus of that paper was on the social isolation of individuals rather than on social cohesion or social capital measured as a group-level construct. This figure is one of the lowest in the OECD a. According to the World Gallup Poll, people in the United States are less likely than people in other high-income countries to express confidence in social institutions, and Americans also have the lowest voting participation rates of OECD countries.
In an interesting link between physical and social environments, Putnam has argued that increasing sprawl could contribute to declining social capital in the United States because suburban commutes leave less time for social interactions. However, it remains unclear whether sprawl helps explain differences in levels of social capital, or health, across countries. Research in the s demonstrated that people of low socioeconomic status were more likely to experience residential segregation in the United States than in some European countries Sellers, Given the established correlation between neighborhood, race, and socioeconomic composition and various health-related neighborhood resources in the United States, this greater segregation could also result in greater exposure of some population sectors to harmful environments Lovasi et al.
Although studies of residential segregation do not directly assess environmental factors, to the extent that segregation is related to differences in exposure to environmental factors, countries with greater segregation may also experience greater spatial inequities in the distribution of environmental factors, resulting in greater health inequalities and possible consequences for overall health status.
Studies that use measures of area socioeconomic characteristics as proxies for environmental features have generally reported similar associations of area features with health in both the United States and other countries van Lenthe et al.
At least two studies have suggested that spatial variation in health-related resources may have very different distributions in the United States than in other countries. A review of spatial variability in access to healthy foods found that food deserts—areas with limited proximity to stores that sell healthy foods—were more prevalent in the United States than in other high-income countries Beaulac et al.
A New Zealand study found that area deprivation was not always consistently associated with lack of community resources including recreational amenities, shopping, educational and health facilities Pearce et al. This finding is in sharp contrast to studies of the United States, which have found associations between neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage and the absence of resources that are important to public health Diez Roux and Mair, Large geographic disparities in toxic exposures to environmental hazards and in healthy food access have been repeatedly noted in U.
Similar geographic disparities may exist for other environmental features. These barriers may inhibit physical activity for parts of the population, resulting in worse overall health. Levels of safety and violence may also be more strongly spatially segregated in the United States than in other countries, resulting in areas with greater exposure to violence and its harmful health consequences. Although no studies have collected the necessary data to determine directly the contribution of the environment to the U.
Below we review the possible contributions of the environment to major conditions for which U. Environmental factors that affect physical activity primarily through their effect on active life-styles, including walking and access to healthy foods rather than calorie-dense foods may help explain differences in obesity and related conditions between the United States and other high-income countries.
As noted above, land use patterns and transportation systems differ starkly between the United States and other high-income countries Richardson and Bae, ; Transportation Research Board, Transportation behavior also differs between the United States and other high-income countries, with U. There was also less variation in active travel among socioeconomic groups in Germany than in the United States Buehler et al. The food intake of the U. In addition, these environmental effects may contribute to the development of social norms regarding behaviors and weight Christakis and Fowler, , which then reinforce certain features of the physical environment, making them increasingly difficult to modify.
This reinforcement creates a vicious cycle in which the environment contributes to the development of social norms such as reliance of automobile transportation and the behavior resulting from the norm reinforces the environmental features such as absence of bicycle lanes or public transportation that sustain it.
The dominant land use and development pattern espoused in the United States for decades Richardson and Bae, has created dependence on private automobile transportation, with important implications for traffic volume and associated traffic injuries and fatalities Transportation Research Board, Once established, the land use patterns and transportation systems are self-reinforcing and may in turn hinder the development of efficient and inexpensive public transportation alternatives.
A physical environment that promotes and incentivizes automobile transportation also reinforces social norms regarding travel, which complicates efforts to modify the patterns. The existing land use patterns and reliance on private automobile transportation not only contribute to traffic volume and injury fatalities, but probably also contribute to physical inactivity, air pollution, and carbon emissions.
In this way, a common physical environmental feature may explain the coexistence of the U. Environmental factors, broadly defined, may also contribute to at least part of the U.
As noted above, residential segregation by income in the United States is associated with violence and related outcomes Sampson et al. Department of Justice, Also dyslexia can co-occur with ongoing speech and language problems. Furthermore ongoing language problems may also be associated with reading comprehension difficulties. Children may have difficulty in sounding out words and have problems with phonological awareness. They may have difficulty working out the constituent sounds in a word e.
For others, their auditory awareness of sounds is impaired, so they are unable to say where in the word a sound comes e.
For those children, training in auditory discrimination is vital if they are to be able to learn phonics successfully.
If there are concerns over elements of speech and language development, then referral to a speech and language therapist is advised for advice and appropriate management. While dyslexia can affect children from all different types of background and cultures, it is important to take account of those factors. Children may be brought up in homes where there are few, if any, books. Culture will influence the value that families place on reading and writing.
Liaison with parents and carers will help establish how literacy is valued and the types of literacy that are important to the family. It is important too to talk to the children about the types of literacy that are valued in their homes.
This may help explain any difficulties that children are having but it should not rule out the possibility of dyslexia. Thus, improving vision can have a very positive effect on the child's progress in gaining literacy.
Though visual problems are not likely to cause dyslexia, if they are present they will certainly aggravate pre-existing difficulties. Symptoms of visual problems may include:. It is sometimes difficult to assess if a child has any visual difficulty at an early age.
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Review what types of factors are important when rating a neighborhood that may or may not be walkable. A factor is a part or element that contributes to a result. If you only fly budget a businessman who buys or sells for another in exchange for a commission. 5. n. Other Factors to Consider · Gaelic Code Cracker. To get in touch with the Toolkit team or to send suggestions, case studies and materials, please email.