74 of the most inspiring and helpful quotes on staying strong and making it through hard times. Susan Gale; “What lies behind us and what lies before us are tiny Leo Buscaglia; “Make up your mind that no matter what comes your . Feel free to share the best one(s) you have found in this article or in. 74 of the most inspiring, beautiful and thought-provoking quotes on friendship. So I'd like to start this year by looking back and share some of the best . Charles Lamb; “Let us be grateful to the people who make us happy;. These fear quotes will help us face our fears and vanquish them. Let's get to it. .. Please share your thoughts on fear and these fear quotes. Hopefully these.
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I never gave or took any excuse. If you stay positive, good things and good people will be drawn to you. What matters is the part we choose to act on. That's who we really are. So throw off the bowlines. Sail away from the safe harbor. Catch the trade winds in your sails. Giving up is what makes it permanent. You have to create new ones. If you concentrate on what you don't have, you will never, ever have enough. We are all boring. We are all spectacular.
We are all shy. We are all bold. We are all heroes. We are all helpless. It just depends on the day. Teach your children early not to pass the blame or make excuses, but to take responsibility for their actions. My biggest burning question is 'How much more are you capable of? If you can't change it, change your attitude. That's how you grow. Pain nourishes your courage. You have to fail in order to practice being brave.
You will get all you want in life if you help enough other people get what they want. I am a product of my decisions. Do it yourself by whatever means necessary. I'm positive that a doer makes mistakes. For example, instead of planning a single boat trip, students might run a trip planning company that has to advise people on travel times for different regions of the country. Under these conditions, transfer to novel problems is enhanced e.
Transfer is also enhanced by instruction that helps students represent problems at higher levels of abstraction. Helping students represent their solution strategies at a more general level can help them increase the probability of positive transfer and decrease the degree to which a previous solution strategy is used inappropriately negative transfer. Advantages of abstract problem representations have been studied in the context of algebra word problems involving mixtures.
Some students were trained with pictures of the mixtures and other students were trained with abstract tabular representations that highlighted the underlying mathematical relationships Singley and Anderson, Students who were trained on specific task components without being provided with the principles underlying the problems could do the specific tasks well, but they could not apply their learning to new problems.
By contrast, the students who received abstract training showed transfer to new problems that involved analogous mathematical relations. Research has also shown that developing a suite of representations enables learners to think flexibly about complex domains Spiro et al. Transfer is always a function of relationships between what is learned and what is tested. Many theorists argue that the amount of transfer will be a function of the overlap between the original domain of learning and the novel one.
Measuring overlap requires a theory of how knowledge is represented and conceptually mapped across domains. College students were presented with the following passage about a general and a fortress Gick and Holyoak, A general wishes to capture a fortress located in the center of a country.
There are many roads radiating outward from the fortress. All have been mined so that while small groups of men can pass over the roads safely, a large force will detonate the mines. A full-scale direct attack is therefore impossible. Students memorized the information in the passage and were then asked to try another task, which was to solve the following problem Gick and Holyoak, You are a doctor faced with a patient who has a malignant tumor in his stomach.
It is impossible to operate on the patient, but unless the tumor is destroyed the patient will die. There is a kind of ray that may be used to destroy the tumor. If the rays reach the tumor all at once and with sufficiently high intensity, the tumor will be destroyed, but surrounding tissue may be damaged as well. At lower intensities the rays are harmless to healthy tissue, but they will not affect the tumor either.
What type of procedure might be used to destroy the tumor with the rays, and at the same time avoid destroying the healthy tissue? Few college students were able to solve this problem when left to their own devices. However, over 90 percent were able to solve the tumor problem when they were explicitly told to use information about the general and the fortress to help them.
These students perceived the analogy between dividing the troops into small units and using a number of small-dose rays that each converge on the same point—the cancerous tissue. Each ray is too weak to harm tissue except at the point of convergence. Despite the relevance of the fortress problem to the tumor problem, the information was not used spontaneously—the connection between the two sets of information had to be explicitly pointed out.
Whether students will transfer across domains—such as distance formulas from physics to formally equivalent biological growth problems, for example—depends on whether they conceive of the growth as occurring continuously successful transfer or in discrete steps unsuccessful transfer Bassok and Olseth, Singley and Anderson argue that transfer between tasks is a function of the degree to which the tasks share cognitive elements.
This hypothesis was also put forth very early in the development of research on transfer of identical elements, mentioned previously Thorndike and Woodworth, ; Woodworth, , but it was hard to test experimentally until there was a way to identify task components. Singley and Anderson taught students several text editors, one after another, and sought to predict transfer, defined as the savings in time of learning a new editor when it was not taught first.
They found that students learned subsequent text editors more rapidly and that the number of procedural elements shared by two text editors predicted the amount of this transfer. In fact, there was large transfer across editors that were very different in surface structures but that had common abstract structures. Singley and Anderson also found that similar principles govern transfer of mathematical competence across multiple domains when they considered transfer of declarative as well as procedural knowledge.
A study by Biederman and Shiffrar is a striking example of the benefits of abstract instruction. They studied a task that is typically difficult to learn in apprentice-like roles: Biederman and Shiffrar found that twenty minutes of instruction on abstract principles helped the novices improve considerably see also Anderson et al. Research studies generally provide strong support for the benefits of helping students represent their experiences at levels of abstraction that transcend the specificity of particular contexts and examples National Research Council, Examples include algebra Singley and Anderson, , computer language tasks Klahr and Carver, , motor skills e.
Studies show that abstracted representations do not remain as isolated instances of events but become components of larger, related events, schemata Holyoak, ; Novick and Holyoak, Knowledge representations are built up through many opportunities for observing similarities and differences across diverse events.
Schemata are posited as particularly im-. Memory retrieval and transfer are promoted by schemata because they derive from a broader scope of related instances than single learning experiences.
It is important to view transfer as a dynamic process that requires learners to actively choose and evaluate strategies, consider resources, and receive feedback. Studies of transfer from learning one text editor to another illustrate the importance of viewing transfer from a dynamic rather than a static perspective. Researchers have found much greater transfer to a second text editor on the second day of transfer than the first Singley and Anderson, Similarly, one educational goal for a course in calculus is how it facilitates learning of physics, but not necessarily its benefit on the first day of physics class.
Ideally, an individual spontaneously transfers appropriate knowledge without a need for prompting. Sometimes, however, prompting is necessary. With prompting, transfer can improve quite dramatically e. This method can be used to assess the amount of help needed for transfer by counting the number and types of prompts that are necessary before students are able to transfer. Tests of transfer that use graduated prompting provide more fine-grained analysis of learning and its effects on transfer than simple one-shot assessments of whether or not transfer occurs.
Transfer can be improved by helping students become more aware of themselves as learners who actively monitor their learning strategies and resources and assess their readiness for particular tests and performances. We briefly discussed the concept of metacognition in Chapters 1 and 3 see Brown, ; Flavell, Metacognitive approaches to instruction have been shown to increase the degree to which students will transfer to new situations without the need for explicit prompting.
The following examples illustrate research on teaching metacognitive skills across domains of reading, writing, and mathematics. Reciprocal teaching to increase reading comprehension Palincsar and Brown, is designed to help students acquire specific knowledge and also to learn a set of strategies for explicating, elaborating, and monitoring the understanding necessary for independent learning.
The three major components of reciprocal teaching are instruction and practice with strategies that enable students to monitor their understanding; provision, initially by a teacher, of an expert model of metacognitive processes; and a social setting that enables joint negotiation for understanding. The knowledge-acquisition strategies the students learn in working on a specific text are not acquired as abstract memorized procedures, but as skills instrumental in achieving subject-area knowledge and understanding.
The instructional procedure is reciprocal in the sense that a teacher and a group of students take turns in leading the group to discuss and use strategies for comprehending and remembering text content. A program of procedural facilitation for teaching written composition Scardamalia et al.
The method prompts learners to adopt the metacognitive activities embedded in sophisticated writing strategies. The prompts help learners think about and reflect on the activities by getting them to identify goals, generate new ideas, improve and elaborate existing ideas, and strive for idea cohesion. Students in the procedural facilitation program take turns presenting their ideas to the group and detailing how they use prompts in planning to write.
The teacher also models these procedures. Thus, the program involves modeling, scaffolding, and taking turns which are designed to help students externalize mental events in a collaborative context. Alan Schoenfeld , , teaches heuristic methods for mathematical problem solving to college students.
The methods are derived, to some extent, from the problem-solving heuristics of Polya Gradually, students come to ask self-regulatory questions themselves as the teacher fades out. At the end of each of the problem-solving sessions, students and teacher alternate in characterizing major themes by analyzing what they did and why.
The recapitulations highlight the generalizable features of the critical decisions and actions and focus on strategic levels rather than on the specific solutions see also White and Frederickson, An emphasis on metacognition can enhance many programs that use new technologies to introduce students to the inquiry methods and other tools that are used by professionals in the workplace see Chapter 8.
The value of using video to model important metacognitive learning procedures has also been shown to help learners analyze and reflect on models Bielaczyc et al. All of these strategies engage learners as active participants in their learning by focusing their attention on critical elements, encouraging abstraction of common themes or procedures principles , and evaluating their own progress toward understanding.
But even the initial learning phase involves transfer because it is based on the knowledge that people bring to any learning situation; see Box 3. First, students may have knowledge that is relevant to a learning situation that is not activated. Second, students may misinterpret new information because of previous knowledge they use to construct new understandings.
Third, students may have difficulty with particular school teaching practices that conflict with practices in their community. This section discusses these three implications.
The importance of building on previous experiences is relevant for adults as well as children. Math was necessary for my mother in a much more sense than it was for me.
Unable to read or write, my mother routinely took rectangles of fabric and, with few measurements and no patterns, cut them and turned them into perfectly fitted clothing for people…I realized that the mathematics she was using was beyond my comprehension. Moreover, although mathematics was a subject matter that I studied and taught, for her it was basic to the operation of her understanding. What she was doing was math in the sense that it embodied order, pattern, relations, and measurement.
It was math because she was breaking a whole into smaller parts and constructing a new whole out of most of the pieces, a new whole that had its own style, shape, size, and that had to fit a specific person. Mistakes in her math entailed practical consequences, unlike mistakes in my math. The structure of many courses would fail to provide the kinds of support that could help her make contact with her rich set of informal knowledge.
The literature on learning and transfer suggests that this is an important question to pursue. By the time children begin school, most have built a considerable knowledge store relevant to arithmetic. They have experiences of adding and subtracting numbers of items in their everyday play, although they lack the symbolic representations of addition and subtraction that are taught in school.
Without specific guidance from teachers, students may fail to connect everyday knowledge to subjects taught in school. Sometimes new information will seem incomprehensible to students, but this feeling of confusion can at least let them identify the existence of a problem see, e.
A more problematic situation occurs when people construct a coherent for them representation of information while deeply misunderstanding the new information. Two examples of this phenomenon are in Chapter 1: The Fish Is Fish scenario is relevant to many additional attempts to help students learn new information.
This force is exerted only so long as the ball is in contact with the hand, but is not present when the ball is in flight. Students claim that this force diminishes as the ball ascends and is used up by the time the ball reaches the top of its trajectory. These explanations fail to take account of the fact that the only forces being exerted on the ball while it is traveling through the air are the gravitational force caused by the earth and the drag force due to air resistance.
For similar examples, see Mestre, A study of how plants make food was conducted with students from elementary school through college. It probed understanding of the role of soil and photosynthesis in plant growth and of the primary source of food in green plants Wandersee, Although students in the higher grades displayed a better understanding, students from all levels displayed several misconceptions: Many of the students in this study, especially those in the higher grades, had already studied photosynthesis.
Yet formal instruction had done little to overcome their erroneous prior beliefs. Clearly, presenting a sophisticated explanation in science class, without also probing. Most children bring to their school mathematics lessons the idea that numbers are grounded in the counting principles and related rules of addition and subtraction. This knowledge works well during the early years of schooling. However, once students are introduced to rational numbers, their assumptions about mathematics can hurt their abilities to learn.
Consider learning about fractions. One cannot count things to generate a fraction. Formally, a fraction is defined as the division of one cardinal number by another: To complicate matters, some number-counting principles do not apply to fractions.
Rational numbers do not have unique successors; there is an infinite number of numbers between any two rational numbers. One cannot use counting-based algorithms for sequencing fractions: Neither the nonverbal nor the verbal counting principle maps to a tripartite symbolic representations of fractions—two cardinal numbers X and Y separated by a line.
Related mapping problems have been noted by others e. Overall, early knowledge of numbers has the potential to serve as a barrier to learning about fractions— and for many learners it does. Often, students construct understandings like those noted above. Strategies for such teaching are discussed in more detail in Chapters 6 and 7. Prior knowledge is not simply the individual learning that students bring to the classroom, based on their personal and idiosyncratic experiences e.
Prior knowledge is also not only a generic set of experiences attributable to developmental stages through which learners may have passed i. Prior knowledge also includes the kind of knowledge that learners acquire because of their social roles, such as those connected with race, class, gender, and their culture and ethnic affiliations Brice-Heath, , ; Lave, ; Moll and Whitmore, ; Moll et al.
School failure may be partly explained by the mismatch between what students have learned in their home cultures and what is required of them in school see Allen and Boykin, ; Au and Jordan, ; Boykin and Tom, ; Erickson and Mohatt, Everyday family habits and rituals can either be reinforced or ignored in schools, and they can produce different responses from teachers Heath, How teachers interpret this reticence or resistance has consequences for how intelligent or academically capable they judge students and their instructional approaches toward them.
For example, a primary school teacher is helping students to understand fractional parts by using what she thinks is a commonplace reference. Most African Americans are likely to serve sweet potato pie for holiday dinners. In fact, one of the ways that African American parents explain pumpkin pie to their children is to say that it is Something like sweet potato pie.
For them, sweet potato pie is the common referent. Even the slight difference of being unfamiliar with pumpkin pie can serve as a source of interference for the student. Rather than be engaged actively in the lesson, he may have been preoccupied with trying to imagine pumpkin pie: What does it taste like? How does it smell? Is its texture chunky like apple or cherry pie? In the mind of a child, all of these questions can become more of the focus than the subject of fractions that the teacher is attempting to teach.
These differences have their roots in early adult-infant interactions Blake, The language that children bring with them to school involves a broad set of skills rooted in the early context of adult-child interactions. What happens when the adults, peers, and contexts change Suina, ; Suina and Smolkin, ?
This is an important question that relates to the transfer of learning. The meanings that are attached to cultural knowledge are important in promoting transfer—that is, in encouraging people to use what they have learned. For example, story-telling is a language skill. Topic-associative oral styles have been observed among African American children Michaels, a,b; In contrast, white children use a more linear narrative style that more closely approximates the linear expository style of writing and speaking that schools teach see Gee, ; Taylor and Lee, ; Cazden et al.
Judgments may be made by white and black teachers as they listen to these two language styles: African American children who come to school speaking in a topic-associative style may be seen by many teachers as having less potential for learning.
We began this chapter by stressing that the ultimate goal of learning is to have access to information for a wide set of purposes—that the learning will in some way transfer to other circumstances. In this sense, then, the ultimate goal of schooling is to help students transfer what they have learned in school to everyday settings of home, community, and workplace.
Since transfer between tasks is a function of the similarity by transfer tasks and learning experiences, an important strategy for enhancing transfer from schools to other settings may be to better understand the nonschool environments in which students must function. Since these environments change rapidly, it is also important to explore ways to help students develop the characteristics of adaptive expertise see Chapter 1. The question of how people function in a number of practical settings has been examined by many scientists, including cognitive anthropologists,.
One major contrast between everyday settings and school environments is that the latter place much more emphasis on individual work than most other environments Resnick, A study of navigation on U. More recent studies of collaboration confirm its importance. For example, many scientific discoveries in several genetics laboratories involve in-depth collaboration Dunbar, Similarly, decision making in hospital emergency rooms is distributed among many different members of the medical team Patel et al.
The use of tools in practical environments helps people work almost error free e. New technologies make it possible for students in schools to use tools very much like those used by professionals in workplaces see Chapter 8. Proficiency with relevant tools may provide a way to enhance transfer across domains. A third contrast between schools and everyday environments is that abstract reasoning is often emphasized in school, whereas contextualized reasoning is often used in everyday settings Resnick, Reasoning can be improved when abstract logical arguments are embodied in concrete contexts see Wason and Johnson-Laird, A well-known study of people in a Weight Watchers program provides similar insights into everyday problem solving see Lave et al.
One example is of a man who needed three-fourths of two-thirds of a cup of cottage cheese to create a dish he was cooking. He did not attempt to multiply the fractions as students would do in a school context.
Instead, he measured two-thirds of a cup of cottage cheese, removed that amount from the measuring cup and then patted the cheese into a round shape, divided it into quarters, and used three of the quarters; see Box 3. Abstract arithmetic was never used.
In similar examples of contextualized reasoning, dairy workers use knowledge, such as the size of milk cases, to make their computational work more efficient Scribner, ; grocery store shoppers use nonschool mathematics under standard supermarket and simulated conditions Lave, ; see Box 3.
There are potential problems with contextualized reasoning, which are similar to those associated with overly contextualized knowledge in general. Could he generate a new strategy for molasses or other liquids? The answer to this question depends on the degree to which he can relate his procedure to more general sets of solution strategies.
Analyses of everyday environments have potential implications for education that are intriguing but need to be thought through and researched carefully. There are many appealing strengths to the idea that learning should be organized around authentic problems and projects that are frequently encountered in nonschool settings: Opportunities to engage in problem-based learning during the first year of medical school lead to a greater ability to diagnose and understand medical problems than do opportunities to learn in typical lecture-based medical courses Hmelo, Attempts to make schooling more relevant to the subsequent workplace have also guided the use of case-based learning in business schools, law schools, and schools that teach educational leadership Hallinger et al, ; Williams, The transfer literature also highlights some of the potential limitations of learning in particular contexts.
Simply learning to perform procedures, and learning in only a single context, does not promote flexible transfer. The transfer literature suggests that the most effective transfer may come from a balance of specific examples and general principles, not from either one alone.
A major goal of schooling is to prepare students for flexible adaptation to new problems and settings. The ability of students to transfer provides an important index of learning that can help teachers evaluate and improve their instruction.
Many approaches to instruction look equivalent when the only measure of learning is memory for information that was specifically presented. Instructional differences become more apparent when evaluated from the perspective of how well the learning transfers to new problems and settings.
The amount and kind of initial learning is a key determinant of the development of expertise and the ability to transfer knowledge. Students are motivated to spend the time needed to learn complex subjects and to solve problems that they find interesting. Opportunities to use knowledge to create products and benefits for others are particularly motivating for students. While time on task is necessary for learning, it is not sufficient for effective learning. Time spent learning for understanding has different consequences for transfer than time spent simply memorizing facts or procedures.
In order for learners to gain insight into their learning and their understanding, frequent feedback is critical: The context in which one learns is also important for promoting transfer.
Knowledge that is taught in only a single context is less likely to support flexible transfer than knowledge that is taught in multiple contexts. With multiple contexts, students are more likely to abstract the relevant features of concepts and develop a more flexible representation of knowledge. The use of well-chosen contrasting cases can help students learn the conditions under which new knowledge is applicable.
Abstract representations of problems can also facilitate transfer. Transfer between tasks is related to the degree to which they share common elements, although the concept of elements must be defined cognitively. In assessing learning, the key is increased speed of learning the concepts underlying the new material, rather than early performance attempts in a new subject domain.
All new learning involves transfer. Previous knowledge can help or hinder the understanding of new information. For example, knowledge of everyday counting-based arithmetic can make it difficult to deal with rational numbers; assumptions based on everyday physical experiences e. Teachers can help students change their original conceptions by helping students make their thinking visible so that misconceptions can be corrected and so that students can be encouraged to think beyond the specific problem or to think about variations on the problem.
Effective teaching supports positive transfer by actively identifying the relevant knowledge and strengths that students bring to a learning situation and building on them. Transfer from school to everyday environments is the ultimate purpose of school-based learning. An analysis of everyday environments provides opportunities to rethink school practices in order to bring them into alignment with the requirements of everyday environments.
But it is important to avoid instruction that is overly dependent on context.
The Real Thing singer Eddy Amoo dies in Australia
Our guide helps students to shape their own study methods so they learn how to fully Task flow mapping your course of actions, or organizing your thoughts on what needs Prepare yourself for learning: Positive thinking alone can't always help us to . The process forces you to learn more yourself when you share your . Singer Eddie Amoo has died aged 74, his bandmates from UK soul group The "It is with great sadness that we share the passing of our brother and inspiration, #toxteth Your thoughts and comments mean so much to us. Dennis Edwards, lead singer of The Temptations, has died. His death was Credit: Terry Wyatt/Getty Images for National Museum of African American Music. (). Dennis Share your thoughts and debate the big issues.