Pure and Organic CBD & and Hemp Products

Effective medicine provided by mother nature

  • Powerful relaxant

  • Strong painkiller

  • Stress reduction
  • Energy booster

Why CBD?

More and more renowned scientists worldwide publish their researches on the favorable impact of CBD on the human body. Not only does this natural compound deal with physical symptoms, but also it helps with emotional disorders. Distinctly positive results with no side effects make CBD products nothing but a phenomenal success.

This organic product helps cope with:

  • Tight muscles
  • Joint pain
  • Stress and anxiety
  • Depression
  • Sleep disorder

Range of Products

We have created a range of products so you can pick the most convenient ones depending on your needs and likes.

CBD Capsules Morning/Day/Night:

CBD Capsules

These capsules increase the energy level as you fight stress and sleep disorder. Only 1-2 capsules every day with your supplements will help you address fatigue and anxiety and improve your overall state of health.

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CBD Tincture

CBD Tincture

No more muscle tension, joints inflammation and backache with this easy-to-use dropper. Combined with coconut oil, CBD Tincture purifies the body and relieves pain. And the bottle is of such a convenient size that you can always take it with you.

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Pure CBD Freeze

Pure CBD Freeze

Even the most excruciating pain can be dealt with the help of this effective natural CBD-freeze. Once applied on the skin, this product will localize the pain without ever getting into the bloodstream.

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Pure CBD Lotion

Pure CBD Lotion

This lotion offers you multiple advantages. First, it moisturizes the skin to make elastic. And second, it takes care of the inflammation and pain. Coconut oil and Shia butter is extremely beneficial for the health and beauty of your skin.

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Types Of Ways To Take CBD Oil for Pain Issues

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  • mouth, i your swallow, the in sheer capsules one prefer effects and for CBD “I simplicity feel pop -
  • What Are the Best CBD Pills for Sale Online? [2018 Reviews]
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  • If you are thinking of buying CBD capsules then this guide is for you. “I prefer CBD capsules for sheer simplicity - pop one in your mouth, swallow, and feel the effects in about 20 minutes.” However, some of the therapeutic effects will be diminished due to the CBD that is lost during digestive breakdown, so ultimately it's. Top Picks for the Best CBD Oil The Healthy Hemp Oil online store stocks a in three full-bodied flavors, the pop-and-go cartridges simply twist into a compatible (under your tongue), so you'll start to feel its effects after ten to fifteen minutes. . incredible nutrition and soothing CBD, all in one easy-to-swallow capsule. Issuu is a digital publishing platform that makes it simple to publish In an era of increased dependence on technology and the impact of such . I live in a time where the world is a wasteland, but it doesn't feel like it, Well, in simplicity. Never being able to make those words come out of your mouth.

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    Cannabis can be actually a quite strong oil, and also just small quantities are required because of this to truly own a strong effect on the body and head. Industry for CBD is growing bigger each day and somebody else could find it tricky deciding the kind of merchandise to purchase. Knowing the terpene information material can enable a consumer pick an item to coincide having a desirable odor or impact. It will also aid with that. It may be utilised to aid pain. Some individuals make use of CBD to even deal with annoyance.

    An ideal quantity of CBD oil for treatment would be. CBD, on the reverse side, also offers substantial pain relief and lots of different other medical advantages, however, is well considered to be quite stimulating.

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    Any chemicals used throughout the extraction treatment could windup inside the previous product. CBD oil can diminish pain together with inflammation and discomfort associated with different health conditions.

    Bottom line CBD petroleum was studied because of its potential function in treating most common health difficulties, including anxiety, depression, cardiovascular and acne illness. Using a tall accomplishment speed andno regarded side effects, medical usage of CBD oil is an really promising and protected treatment method choice for the furry friend!

    CBD hemp acrylic capsules supply you with a remarkably convenient approach to receive your daily consumption of cannabidiol. Undoubtedly the substance composition of the breed you decide on and the manner in which you consume will influence the outcome.

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    It should be preferred nomenclature. For instance, if your aim would be tointegrate deep breathing in your own life, begin using practicing forone-minute intervals four or three times every day in the place of at any time. CBD is most likely the antidote to acquire rid. With all the aid of CBD tincture, it is possible to earn anything. CBD tinctures may possibly be mixed offering you a collection of plans.

    As a plus, the tinctures might be utilized to produce your moisturizer combo. CBD hemp oil capsules supply you with a remarkably convenient procedure to receive your consumption of cannabidiol.

    CBD oil is renowned for curing asthmatic illnesses. Further, it employs an renewable extraction process that utilizes a complete plant method, which minimizes waste using the leaves, stalks and different pieces of the plant. You will find hundreds and hundreds of applications for hemp options. CBD tea is most befitting users who need a tea.

    CBD hemp oil is legal to purchase and offer within the usa. Still another possible effect is that, in certain humans, CBD oil could bring about greater risk of illness particularly in the lungs also may lessen the human body reaction too much. The decision could be. Possibly the method of taking CBD is currently making use of capsules. Moreover, the more strain of the kind of medicine you pick on and or bud you select will have varying influences in your entire body as well as your condition.

    There are a number of CBD services and products to pick from and understanding differentiate in between apparently indistinguishable services and products and just how exactly to compare products is step one in the direction of making a educated buying decision once it has to do with getting CBD Oil online.

    CBD petroleum was proven to counter act the sensation of nausea from patients that are building a collection of health care disorders. CBD is famous because of its own pain relieving and inflammation reducing advantages, but nevertheless, it may benefit rest difficulties, depression anxiety and nausea, to mention a number.

    The Cannabis plant supplies a great deal of cannabinoids, all which are discovered to have properties that were unique. Marijuana inducesa gain in appetite owing to the large concentration of THC. CBD tinctures may also be combined with beverages, offering you a range of strategies to consume CBD. The plant is a bioaccumulator. Using shatter the sole way you may take it will be always to dab this , or you could heat up this with oil in process called de-carbing and you are ready enough to add it also.

    If your hemp plant climbed on wealthy soil the next plant is going to function as top quality which will produce CBD oil too. Accession into your diet The hemp oil which stems from your seed is also really full of nourishment and also in healthy fatty and amino acids it serves to your diet which results in continue to keep a healthier human weight reduction.

    CBD oil is best for a variety of sweet treats. It is highly helpful for your cardiovascular method. Research about how cannabinoids for instance, CBD have an impact on your system signals which they mainly interact together with all our endocannabinoid process, a nervous system which is present throughout our whole human anatomy. Purchasing CBD is no simple undertaking!

    Moreover, the breed of the type and or marijuana you simply select will also have variable impacts on your illness and your entire human body. October 19, CBD is an absolute wonder. CBD has been producing a whole lot of buzz in the health community of late — but perhaps not the kind of buzz you might expect from a cannabinoid. From chronic pain to mental health, CBD has the potential to alleviate an astonishing number of ailments. But like many, you might be fuzzy on the details. Consider this your primer on all things CBD.

    They make a very high-quality product, provide fantastic customer support and user experience, and do it with moderate pricing. Read Full Review Shop Fab. But what sets them apart is the quality of their product and the services they offer their customers. And it tastes good! While most CBD oils contain only trace amounts of THC, even that small amount can store up in your system and eventually cause a failed drug test. Not only are there billions exaggeration of CBD providers, but every company claims to provide the purest, the cleanest, and the most potent CBD available not an exaggeration.

    You could spend hours reading lab tests, creating spreadsheets, comparing prices, asking questions. At the top of our list is a company that set out to correct what other CBD manufacturers were getting wrong.

    Their CBD oils get top marks for quality and transparency — without extortionate pricing. And their bottles look cool too. Domestically sourced, organic, full-spectrum distillate. They have up-to-date lab results on their website — these include results for cannabinoid and terpene levels, as well as pesticides.

    Third party lab tests happen every couple months. Fast, helpful customer support. You have thirty days to return a product if you order multiple items, only one can be opened. Concentrations range from mgmg per 1 fluid oz. You can also choose from three flavors: The lab report on the website shows results for cannabinoid potency as well as terpenes and contaminants like heavy metals.

    Fast, helpful customer service responses. They also offer free shipping and a robust return policy. Concentrations for their 30 ml bottle range from mg — mg.

    There is also a 60 ml option which has from mg — mg of CBD. You can choose from four flavors, all of which get pretty decent reviews. They partner with domestic farmers to make quality hemp-based products. They want to help customers live with a holistic focus on health. With an attractive and mostly intuitive website, shopping for Populum products is easy. Their products, all full-spectrum, come in sleek packaging and are of high quality. Their customer service is quick and helpful and the reviews show them to be highly reliable.

    Refreshingly, they allow poor reviews to remain on their website. Domestically and internationally sourced, organic, full-spectrum CBD oil Price: In addition to cannabinoids, they include testing results for both heavy metals and pesticides. Responses to inquiries were quick and thorough.

    You have only 7 days to get in touch if you want to return an unopened product. Concentrations range from mg in their smallest bottle up to mg in their largest bottle. They also have isolate-based tinctures. They are dedicated to sustainable, cruelty-free farming and processing, and they have great customer service. Both full-spectrum and isolate-based CBDoil from organic, domestically sourced hemp. Eight cents per mg CBD for lowest priced product Transparency: Third-party lab results are easy to find on the website, and you can look up the specific lab test for your own bottle.

    Highly responsive customer service. Concentrations range from mg mg of both full-spectrum and isolate based tinctures. They claim to extract their CBD oil from the flowers the best bits of hemp plants while keeping prices affordable. Receptra uses domestically sourced, organic, full-spectrum CBD. Every batch is third-party tested, and you can find the lab tests on their website.

    Lab tests include information on cannabinoid potency as well as other contaminants like residual solvents and heavy metals. Customer service is fast and happy to answer questions fully.

    Concentrations range from mg — mg per 2 oz bottle. Domestically sourced, organic, full-spectrum CBD oil. Lab results are easy to find within product descriptions , but we were unable to ascertain just how often those lab tests are taking place. The tests that are available show a lot of information, though, including cannabinoid potency, and testing for residual solvents and pesticides.

    Canna customer service is both fast andfriendly, though sometimes their answers are a little hard to interpret. They have a great return policy, but no free shipping. Tincture concentrations range from mg up to mg. Canna also has tinctures that have been customized for anxiety, inflammation, and sleep. Their product design is certainly nothing to write home about, but their prices are.

    This is one of the cheapest CBD oils that you can buy without sacrificing quality. Domestically sourced, organic CBD isolate. Medterra scored high for transparency — every batch is third-party tested, and those lab reports are both easy to find and include information about in addition to cannabinoid levels. Customer service was great, answering questions fully and promptly. Tincture concentrations range from mg — mg CBD.

    No flavor options actually, no flavor at all — this is a flavorless tincture. None Shop Hemplucid For a newer company, Hemplucid has a lot to offer. They sell whole plant CBD grown organically in Colorado, and make a big deal about transparency — down to their clear bottles. Domestically sourced, organic, full-spectrum CBD oil Price: Third party lab tests are performed for every batch of oil, and up-to-date third-party ab results are on the website.

    The lab tests only show results for cannabinoid potency. Solid customer service — they answer their phones quickly an email response took a bit longer and give good, complete answers to product questions.

    They provide both free shipping and a good return policy. Concentrations range from mg — mg. A family business, they take quality seriously and are trusted by many parents whose children benefit from their CBD oil.

    Organic, domestically sourced, full-spectrum CBD. They include results for cannabinoid potency as well as a whole range of other possible contaminants. Customer service responses were fast and informative.

    The tincture comes in two sizes — 30 ml or ml. Both sizes contain the same concentration of 20 mg CBD per ml. None Shop Pure Spectrum With a stated mission to revolutionize the phytocannabinoid industry, Pure Spectrum is aiming high.

    They offer reliably high-quality CBD oil extracted from organically farmed hemp at respectable prices. Pure Spectrum has each batch of CBD oil tested by a third-party lab, and those results are readily available on the website. Timelycustomer service responses and a strong return policy. Their full spectrum tincture concentrations range from mg CBD in their 15 ml bottle up to mg in their 60 ml bottle. The Seattle-based company is committed to making CBD available to everyone, and their social conscience extends to discount programs for veterans and people with low incomes.

    Both full-spectrum and isolate-based CBD oil from organic, domestically-sourced hemp. Every batch of CBD oil is third-party tested, and you can find up-to-date lab results on theirwebsite Customer Service: Prompt customer service, but a more rigid return policy only 14 days to return a product. For the full-spectrum CBD oil, you can choose your bottle size, but the concentration stays the same. Rave15 Green Gorilla Location: Their domestically sourced, organic products are mostly isolates, but they offer a full-spectrum option as well.

    Organic, domestically sourced, CBD isolate. Green Gorilla has every batch of CBD oil third party tested, and lab results are easy to find. Green Gorilla took a hit in the customer service category because we never got a response to email inquiries.

    They do answer their phones, though, and have good answers to question. Their return policy is relatively strict — they accept returns on unopened products within 14 days. Concentrations vary from mg in a 1 oz bottle up to mg in a 2 oz bottle. Flavor options are lemon or olive oil. They are an established, well-trusted Colorado-based company known for their quality CBD-dominant strain of hemp. Domestically-sourced, organic, full-spectrum CBD oil Price: Every batch is third-party tested, and if you want to see a lab test before you purchase, just email customer service.

    Customer service responses were a little slower — it took a couple days to get a response from an email inquiry. They sent a ton of information, though. Concentrations range from milligrams per bottle up to in their new Max. Organic, locally sourced, CBD isolate. Every batch is third party tested, and you can find test results in the product descriptions on the website. It took a couple days to get responses to our inquiries, but answers were friendly and informative.

    Concentrations vary from mg mg per 30 ml bottle. Their product selection is limited, but devoted entirely to whole-plant extracts that give you the full entourage effect. Organic, domestically sourced, CBD. Third party lab tests are available by request. The publicly available lab test is limited to cannabinoid potency. They do offer free shipping and you can return unopened products within 30 days of delivery.

    All tinctures have the same concentration of 50 mg CBD per ml. Your choice is limited to the size of the bottle. Organic, domestically sourced, full-spectrum CBD oil. Moon Mother has each batch of CBD oil tested for potency by a third party. The website is generally pretty thin on information about testing and extraction.

    It took several days to get a response to our emailed inquiries, and there is no phone number listed on the website. We did eventually get good answers to our questions, though. For tinctures, you can choose between mg and mg CBD per ml. They also offer the flavor options of peppermint and cinnamon. None Shop Mana Artisan Botanics Working from a solid base of ethics and experience, Mana Artisan Botanics is a Hawaiian company committed to using pure, organic ingredients that are locally sourced whenever possible.

    Each batch of their tincture is third-party tested, and those lab results are available on request rather than on the website. The lab results we saw showed cannabinoid potency only. We heard back from emailed in customer service within 24 hours, and they answered all our questions. You can choose from three bottle sizes. The publicly available reports only cite cannabinoid potency, and we were unable to ascertain how often third-party testing takes place.

    We got emailed replies back very quickly. On the other hand, we found their answers unsatisfying when it came to how often third-party lab testing is done.

    Their return policy allows you a refund for unopened product only, within 30 days. Tinctures come in concentrations of mg or mg per 15 ml bottle. Rave18 Hemp Bombs Location: It gets the job done, though, and the company itself sells high-quality, organically farmed CBD at reasonable prices.

    Although Hemp Bombs originally sourced their hemp from Europe, the company has transitioned to domestically sourced hemp. Third-party lab reports are readily available on their website, and according to customer service, these are being performed every six months. The lab tests that we saw reported cannabinoid potency, as well as results for residual solvents and heavy metals.

    We had no problems getting responses from customer service, and they answered all of our questions although there was some confusion about sourcing, which we later clarified with the company.

    Tincture concentrations range from mg to mg per bottle — all bottles are the same size. You can choose between peppermint and watermelon flavors. There are new CBD companies coming online every week — these span the range from truly awful to really great.

    So how to choose the best? The quality of the CBD oil itself is obviously the most important factor — and many companies do take the quality of their products seriously. To reward those companies, we gave more weight to the quality of the product than any other category. With so many companies to choose from, though, we had to further refine our list. So we looked at other factors to determine which companies are the best and the most trustworthy.

    So we scrutinized the transparency of the manufacturer, the customer experience, and the value for your dollar. Where the hemp was grown To determine the quality of the CBD oil, we started with the source — where the hemp was grown and whether it was grown organically. Domestic sources allow for more oversight over farming practices, so companies that source their hemp in the U.

    Companies that source from farms that utilize organic practices got higher marks. Broad spectrum CBD oil includes a range of other cannabinoids, but minus the THC — which is generally what people using isolates are trying to avoid. We gave the highest points to companies that use a CBD distillate for their tinctures. The process of distillation creates an extract that is pure on a molecular level. There are people who think distillate is too pure, and that a full spectrum decarb produces a more effective tincture.

    But in light of the inconclusive evidence, we prefer a distillate. The process allows for a high degree of control as to the finished product. Flavor Which seguesneatly into our final quality marker — namely, taste. True, taste is subjective. But there are companies putting a lot of resources into making their tinctures palatable. And then there are tinctures that just taste plain bad.

    For this category, we put a lot of weight on how they deal with third-party lab testing. First, we rated them on how easy it is to find those lab test results — as well as how much they tested for. All lab tests should test cannabinoid levels, but we really appreciate companies that also let us see testing results for contaminants like pesticides, heavy metals, and residual solvents.

    We then asked how often they have third-party testing performed top marks for those who send every batch to a third-party lab. And we gave points to companies who make it really easy to find information on extraction and sourcing.

    So we posed as customers and went through the whole shopping experience. This included everything from navigating the website and sending out customer service emails to going through the checkout process — as well as noting shipping and returns policies.

    We also gave a few points based on the design and appearance of both their website and bottle. The score, out of , breaks down to 70 percent for price and 30 percent for quality. This brings some balance to the list since, for most of us, cost definitely matters. They are all selling high-quality products, with third-party lab tests to back them up. We went with the best evidence available for example, in privileging full-spectrum oils over isolates.

    But otherwise — where evidence is inconclusive, we made decisions based on our own experience and preference. And there are some new additions! In short, Cannabidiol — or CBD — is a cannabis compound that has many therapeutic benefits. Usually extracted from the leaves and flowers of hemp plants — though marijuana can also be a source — CBD oil is then incorporated into an array of marketable products.

    These products vary from the most common, like sublingual oils and topical lotions, to the less common think CBD lattes. Basically, if you can dream it, you can buy it. How does CBD Work?

    The endocannabinoid system is spread throughout your brain and body, but primarily throughout your central nervous system. The interaction between cannabinoids and receptors is what produces effects like the regulation of mood, pain, appetite, inflammation, and memory. Plant-based cannabinoids, found in cannabis plants, also interact with the receptors whimsically named CB1 and CB2 in the endocannabinoid system, and each affects your body in different ways. But CBD is a special snowflake among cannabinoids.

    This unique interaction creates systemic, whole-body benefits that include, but are by no means limited to: CBD is anon-psychoactive component of the cannabis plant.

    So, no, it will not make you high. There are at least different cannabinoids that can be isolated from cannabis plants, each of which has its own effects. THC or tetrahydrocannabinol is the only cannabinoid responsible for the high that people get from marijuana.

    This property makes CBD highly useful as a medical treatment for a wide range of conditions. Each cannabinoid has its own properties and confers its own benefits.

    Working together, a synergy is created that boosts the healing properties of CBD. The government regulates concentration levels of THC at 0. But THC metabolites are stored in the fat cells of your body, building up over time.

    If youever need to take a drug test, this could create an issue for you. CBD Isolate is just that — CBD that has been isolated and then refined to remove all other terpenes, cannabinoids, and plant material. This process eliminates the trace amounts of THC that would otherwise be present. The result is a fine white powder containing only the pure CBD chemical compound. This isolate is then combined with carrier oils like hemp seed oil or MCT oil to create marketable products.

    While those in the These terpenes may enhance the effectiveness of CBD — or maybe they just make it smell good. This may be a good place to point out that not all CBD products are created equal. The industry is still largely unregulated, and the quality and quantity of CBD in a given product will vary wildly. Another point worth clarifying is the difference between hemp seed oil or hemp oil and CBD oil.

    However, hemp seed oil does not contain any concentration of cannabinoids at all, including CBD. So by all means, stock up at your local natural food store. And now, onto the thorny issue of legality.

    The simple answer to the question is yes — if it is extracted from hemp. The Farm Bill established guidelines for growing hemp in the U. CBD derived from marijuana is a different story, and the law varies from state to state.

    And what research supports these claims? The science behind CBD is in the relatively early stages. As a cannabinoid, we know that CBD interacts with receptors in your endocannabinoid system. The endocannabinoid system is integrated throughout your body — and this widespread, whole-body interaction creates a broad range of effects. Hence, the long list of possible benefits.

    But those who deal with chronic pain know the debilitating, life-sucking reality of this condition. And traditional medications often come with long lists of side effects which can be as debilitating as the pain itself. So when word started getting out that CBD has the potential to reduce pain without those side effects, it seemed too good to be true.

    In fact, numerous studies have looked at the relationship between CBD and pain, and the results are promising. Researchers have looked at various kinds of pain — from joint pain to cancer pain. One finding is that CBD increases levels of glutamate and serotonin — both neurotransmitters that play a role in pain regulation. Both conditions have been treated with a variety of medications, courtesy of Big Pharma, that have had varying levels of success.

    Again, the long list of side effects can be off-putting to someone who just wants to get through the day without the sweaty tension of anxiety or the gray haze of depression. Another study showed CBD to have antidepressant effects comparable to those of the prescription antidepressant Imipramine. These studies point to the need for more research to be done on CBD. But for those who have had limited success with prescribed medications, talking with your doctor about using CBD as an alternative is worth consideration.

    CBD and Insomnia Sleep, the sweet elixir of the gods. So natural, but for many of us, so sadly elusive. We exercise, we avoid things that we really, really want — like naps and caffeine. And still, the magic escapes us. But help is near. CBD, with its calming, anti-anxiety effects, is helping many people get the sleep they need — without the groggy side effects of many sleeping pills. There are lots of things that can keep a person awake — from anxiety or depression to chronic pain.

    CBD and Seizures In the United States, over three million people suffer from epilepsy — , of those people are children. Epilepsy is a disorder of the brain that causes seizures — of which there are over thirty different kinds, ranging from mild and infrequent to life-threatening.

    Not surprisingly, people with epilepsy face significant challenges — from the cost of healthcare to work limitations and social isolation. And treatment proves difficult for many people. In fact, over one-third of people with epilepsy live with uncontrollableseizures because there is no available treatment that works for them. So when CBD started gaining mainstream attention for stopping or greatly reducing seizures, people started to get very excited.

    And with good reason. Evidence from laboratory studies, small clinical studies, and anecdotal reports over a number of years suggest that CBD helps control seizures. And in June of , a major advance was made when the FDA approved a prescription cannabidiol medicine — Epidiolex — to treat rare and severe forms of epilepsy.

    This means that people with these rare and devastating forms of epilepsy will have access to CBD that has been clinically tested and dosed.

    This is a hugely beneficial effect of CBD. Free radicals are the culprits when it comes to oxidative damage and inflammation. These elements include pervasive, but hugely unsurprising, things like: A cannabinoid extracted from the hemp or marijuana plant, CBD has antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-anxiety effects — among many other benefits.

    But the world of CBD oil can be a confusing place even if you have a pretty clear idea of what you want it to do for you. The goal, of course, is to get the right amount of CBD into your body in the most efficient way. But how do you know what the right amount is?

    Factors like your specific product, your genetic makeup, and the condition you want to treat will all play a part in the dose you take. To help get you started in finding your own perfect dose, here are some general principles to use as a guide: Main results Eight studies participants met the inclusion criteria. We identified five potentially relevant unpublished studies in the most recent searches, but data were not available at this time.

    The number of included studies therefore remains unchanged. The NNT for celecoxib mg and mg compared with placebo. This double-blind, double-dummy, parallel-group study was designed to show that a pharmacokinetically enhanced formulation of oral amoxycillin-clavulanate The most common pathogen isolated was S.

    The radiological and bacteriological success rates at test of cure for the PP populations were Both regimens were well tolerated, with no differences in adverse events between the groups. Methotrexate MTX treatment for psoriasis is most often administered weekly, because the drug has been considered more hepatotoxic when taken daily. However, some patients may tolerate smaller, more frequent doses better. To study the efficacy and toxicity of daily vs. In a randomized controlled trial, patients with generalized plaque psoriasis received oral MTX 2.

    Changes in PASI scores were classified into three categories: Daily rainfall forecasting for one year in a single run using Singular Spectrum Analysis. Effective modelling and prediction of smaller time step rainfall is reported to be very difficult owing to its highly erratic nature.

    Accurate forecast of daily rainfall for longer duration multi time step may be exceptionally helpful in the efficient planning and management of water resources systems.

    Identification of inherent patterns in a rainfall time series is also important for an effective water resources planning and management system. In the present study, Singular Spectrum Analysis SSA is utilized to forecast the daily rainfall time series pertaining to Koyna watershed in Maharashtra, India, for days after extracting various components of the rainfall time series such as trend, periodic component, noise and cyclic component.

    In order to forecast the time series for longer time step days-one window length , the signal and noise components of the time series are forecasted separately and then added together. The results of the study show that the method of SSA could extract the various components of the time series effectively and could also forecast the daily rainfall time series for longer duration such as one year in a single run with reasonable accuracy.

    Evaluating health needs includes measures of the impact of state of health on the quality of life. This entails evaluating the psychosocial aspects of health. To achieve this, several tools for measuring the quality of life related to oral health have been developed. However, it is vital to evaluate the psychometric properties of these tools so they can be used in a new context and on a new population.

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the reliability and validity of the Malagasy version of a questionnaire for studying the impacts of oral -dental health on daily activities Oral Impacts on Daily Performance , and analyse the interrelations between the scores obtained and the oral health indicators. A cross-sectional study was performed for the transcultural adaptation of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance questionnaire forward translated and back-translated from English to Malagasy and from Malagasy to English, respectively.

    The psychometric characteristics of the Malagasy version of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance were then evaluated in terms of internal reliability, test-retest, and construct, criteria and discriminant validity. Four hundred and six adults responded in face-to-face interviews to the Malagasy version of the Oral Impacts on Daily Performance questionnaire. The activities most affected were: Cronbach's alpha was 0. Background Thirty-five Cochrane Reviews of randomised trials testing the analgesic efficacy of individual drug interventions in acute postoperative pain have been published.

    This overview brings together the results of all those reviews and assesses the reliability of available data.

    Objectives To summarise data from all Cochrane Reviews that have assessed the effects of pharmaceutical interventions for acute pain in adults with at least moderate pain following surgery, who have been given a single dose of oral analgesic taken alone.

    Methods We identified systematic reviews in The Cochrane Library through a simple search strategy. Main results The overview included 35 separate Cochrane Reviews with 38 analyses of single dose oral analgesics tested in acute postoperative pain models, with results from about 45, participants studied in approximately individual studies.

    The individual reviews included only high-quality trials of standardised design and outcome reporting. The reviews used standardised methods and reporting for both efficacy and harm. Event rates with placebo were consistent in larger data sets. No statistical comparison was undertaken. There were reviews but no trial data were available for acemetacin, meloxicam, nabumetone, nefopam, sulindac, tenoxicam, and tiaprofenic acid. Inadequate amounts of data were available for dexibuprofen, dextropropoxyphene Pharmacokinetics of voriconazole after oral administration of single and multiple doses in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots Amazona ventralis.

    To determine the pharmacokinetics and safety of voriconazole administered orally in single and multiple doses in Hispaniolan Amazon parrots Amazona ventralis. Birds were monitored daily , and clinicopathologic variables were evaluated before and after the trial. Voriconazole elimination half-life was short 0. In the single -dose experiments, higher drug doses yielded proportional increases in the maximum plasma voriconazole concentration C max and area under the curve AUC. In the multiple-dose trial, C max , AUC, and plasma concentrations at 2 and 4 hours were decreased on day 10, compared with day 0 values; however, there was relatively little change in terminal half-life.

    With the exception of 1 voriconazole-treated parrot that developed polyuria, adverse effects were not evident. In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, oral administration of voriconazole was associated with proportional kinetics following administration of single doses and a decrease in plasma concentration following administration of multiple doses. Safety and efficacy of voriconazole treatment in this species require further investigation.

    Routine use of daily oral vitamin K to treat infants with cystic fibrosis. Vitamin K is routinely administered after birth in the UK to prevent haemorrhagic disease of the newborn. Despite this, vitamin K-deficient coagulopathy still occurs in infants with high morbidity and mortality. The risk of developing vitamin K coagulopathy is higher in infants with cystic fibrosis CF and those that are exclusively breast fed due to low vitamin K levels in breast milk and intestinal changes in bacterial flora.

    Oral vitamin K supplementation is a simple addition to routine CF treatment during infancy to prevent complications from significant coagulopathy. Penetration of levofloxacin into skin tissue after oral administration of multiple mg once- daily doses. To probe the pharmacokinetic basis for the use of levofloxacin for complicated skin and skin-structure infections SSSIs at a once- daily dosage of mg by investigating its penetration into skin tissue.

    Ten healthy volunteers were administered three oral , once- daily mg doses of levofloxacin, and levofloxacin concentrations were subsequently measured over time 0. Three of the ten subjects reported treatment-emergent adverse events AEs that were considered unrelated to treatment. An 11th subject who had enrolled in the study withdrew after AEs of mild severity that were possibly related to the study drug.

    The results support the clinical usage of levofloxacin mg once- daily for complicated SSSIs. The progestational steroid norgestrel was synthesized and tested between and through an international cooperation between Wyeth, USA and Schering, Berlin. Its contraceptive action is exerted at the central hypothalamic and peripheral cervical mucus and endometrium levels. Levonorgestrel LNG , alone or in combination with ethinyl estradiol EE , is the most widely employed contraceptive progestin: It is also the steroid of choice for new oral contraceptive regimens aimed at reducing the frequency of bleeding episodes.

    The first new modality consisted of changing the 7-day medication-free interval, either shortening it to fewer than 7 days, or by the administration of low-dose estrogens during the interval between packages. Then, continuous administration regimens started to be investigated. This, however, did not happen suddenly, since, in specific situations, doctors had for years empirically utilized various continuous administration regimens.

    The first extended-cycle oral contraceptive regimen introduced in clinical practice is an Double-blind evaluation of the safety and pharmacokinetics of multiple oral once- daily milligram and 1-gram doses of levofloxacin in healthy volunteers. The safety and pharmacokinetics of once- daily oral levofloxacin in 16 healthy male volunteers were investigated in a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. In study period 1, mg of levofloxacin or a placebo was administered orally as a single dose on day 1, followed by a washout period on days 2 and 3; dosing resumed for days 4 to Following a 3-day washout period, 1 g of levofloxacin or a placebo was administered in a similar fashion in period 2.

    Plasma and urine levofloxacin concentrations were measured by high-pressure liquid chromatography. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated by model-independent methods. Levofloxacin was rapidly absorbed after single and multiple once- daily mg and 1-g doses with an apparently large volume of distribution.

    Peak plasma levofloxacin concentration Cmax values were generally attained within 2 h postdose. The mean values of Cmax and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h AUC following a single mg dose were 7. Following the single 1-g dose, mean Cmax and AUC values were 8. These Cmax and AUC values indicate modest and similar degrees of accumulation upon multiple dosing at the two dose levels.

    The mean values of Cmax and area under the concentration-time curve from 0 to 24 h AUC0—24 following a single mg dose were 7. Following the single 1-g dose, mean Cmax and AUC0—24 values were 8. These Cmax and AUC0—24 values indicate modest and similar degrees of accumulation upon multiple dosing at the two dose levels. We investigated memantine pharmacokinetics after oral , IV and patch administration in rats, and compared memantine pharmacokinetics after multiple- or single -dose oral and transdermal administration.

    Venous blood was collected at preset intervals in single - and multiple-dose studies. Non-compartmental pharmacokinetics was analysed for all formulations. The maximum plasma concentration was lower and the half-life longer after patch administration than oral and IV administration. The mean AUC increased after oral or patch administration from single to multiple dose. The memantine patch formulation displayed a longer duration of action and lower peak plasma concentration.

    However, drug exposure was similar to the oral formulation at each dose. Additionally, the memantine patch formulation displayed a smaller interindividual variability and lower accumulation than the oral formulation. Making the leap from daily oral dosing to long-acting injectables: There are now long-acting versions of six antipsychotic drugs on the U.

    Oily solutions of lipophilic prodrugs were the first to enter the LAIA market, but they relied on esterification of a hydroxyl handle that was lost with the emergence of the atypical antipsychotics.

    A review of the literature and patents shows that companies tested many different approaches before reaching the currently marketed versions, including aqueous suspensions of poorly soluble salts, polymeric microspheres, and new approaches to making prodrugs.

    Yet, very little has been published to support faster development of safe long-acting injectables LAIs. This review introduces some of the critical considerations in creating an LAI; then it analyzes the existing products and discusses areas where further research is needed. The available literature suggests that lipophilic prodrugs may be inherently safer than poorly soluble salts as LAIs.

    Other areas needing additional study include 1 the range of physical properties acceptable for LAIs and the effect of prodrug tail length in achieving them, and 2 the role of physiological responses at the injection site in the release of drug from a depot. The daily report card DRC is a commonly employed behavioral intervention for treating attention deficit hyperactivity disorder ADHD in schools. Much of the support for the DRC comes from single -case studies, which have traditionally received less attention than group studies.

    This lack of attention to single -case studies results in an…. The circadian body temperature rhythm in the elderly: The corresponding standard deviations SD of the group acrophases were 3.

    Genotypic distribution of single nucleotide polymorphisms in oral cancer: Globocan reports the global oral cancer incidence of , new oral cancer cases annually, contributing to 2. Thus, genomic variants in individuals represented as single nucleotide polymorphisms SNPs influence susceptibility to oral cancer.

    With a view to understanding the role of genomic variants in oral cancer, we reviewed SNPs in case-control studies with a minimum of cases and controls. PubMed and HuGE navigator search engines were used to obtain data published from to , which identified 67 articles investigating the role of SNPs in oral cancer.

    Meta-analysis of data in multiple studies defined nine SNPs associated with a risk of oral cancer. The genes were associated with critical functions deregulated in cancers, including cell proliferation, immune function, inflammation, transcription, DNA repair and xenobiotic metabolism.

    To evaluate the potential toxicity of l-tyrosine, 4 groups of Crl: Findings related to l-tyrosine administration were as follows. Daily oral hydroxycholecalciferol supplementation for vitamin D deficiency in haemodialysis patients: Vitamin D deficiency is frequently observed in end-stage renal disease ESRD patients; however, the effects of vitamin D supplementation have rarely been reported. Characteristics of the patients were compared from the baseline to 6 months on the basis of their response to 25 OH D 3 administration and the patients were divided into three groups.

    After 6 months of treatment [mean daily 25 OH D 3: Pharmacokinetics of fluralaner in dogs following a single oral or intravenous administration. Fluralaner is a novel systemic insecticide and acaricide.

    The purpose of these studies was to investigate the pharmacokinetic properties of fluralaner in Beagle dogs following single oral or intravenous i. Following the oral administration of Pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by non-compartmental methods. After oral administration, maximum plasma concentrations C max were reached within 1 day on average. Fluralaner was quantifiable in plasma for up to days after single oral and i. The apparent half-life of fluralaner was days and the mean residence time was days.

    The apparent volume of distribution of fluralaner was 3. Fluralaner is readily absorbed after single -dose oral administration, and has a long elimination half-life, long mean residence time, relatively high apparent volume of distribution, and low clearance. These pharmacokinetic characteristics help to explain the prolonged activity of fluralaner against fleas and ticks on dogs after a single oral dose. Classrooms and Curriculum Come Alive with Music: Developed specifically for classroom teachers with a limited background in music, oral music lessons are designed to be taught in short, daily instruction segments to help students gain the most from music and transfer that knowledge to other parts of the curriculum.

    The lessons, a master degree project, were developed to support the Utah music…. Do self-efficacy and depression predict oral impacts on daily performances across time? A 2-yr follow-up of students in Tanzania. This study aimed to assess the longitudinal validity of the oral impacts on daily performance OIDP and to identify psychosocial determinants, in terms of self-efficacy and depressive symptoms, of the OIDP across time. Following conceptual frameworks of oral health, it was hypothesized that sociodemographic, clinical, and psychosocial factors predict oral impacts across time at both population- averaged and person-specific levels.

    Whether the effects of sociodemographic and clinical factors were accounted for, totally or in part, by psychosocial factors were also investigated. Self administered questionnaires and oral clinical examinations at baseline and follow-up were completed by 1, and secondary school students, respectively.

    Generalized equalized equations and a random intercept model were used to account for the dependency in repeated observations.

    Mean OIDP change scores were negative worsened among those who reported worsened self-reported oral health. Psychosocial, clinical, and sociodemographic factors were independently associated with oral impacts at the population-averaged and person-specific levels.

    Mediation of sociodemographic and clinical variables according to psychosocial variables was not observed. Satisfactory longitudinal evaluative properties of the OIDP, and independent effects of psychosocial factors on oral impacts across time, were confirmed among secondary school students in Tanzania.

    Pharmacokinetics of voriconazole after oral administration of single and multiple doses in African grey parrots Psittacus erithacus timneh. To determine the pharmacokinetics and safety of orally administered voriconazole in African grey parrots. Treatment effects were assessed via observation, clinicopathologic analyses 3 assessments , and measurement of trough plasma voriconazole concentrations 2 assessments.

    Voriconazole's elimination half-life was short 1. Higher doses resulted in disproportional increases in the maximum plasma voriconazole concentration and area under the curve. Trough plasma voriconazole concentrations achieved in the multiple-dose trial were lower than those achieved after administration of single doses.

    Polyuria the only adverse treatment effect developed in treated and control birds but was more severe in the treatment group. In African grey parrots, voriconazole has dose-dependent pharmacokinetics and may induce its own metabolism. To evaluate the safety and hematologic tolerance of 2'-3'-dideoxyinosine didanosine, ddI in subjects with acquired immunodeficiency syndrome AIDS or AIDS-related complex and prior hematologic intolerance to zidovudine.

    A Phase I trial with two dose groups at a single -center, university-affiliated hospital ambulatory care center. All had CD4 lymphocyte counts less than 0. Didanosine was administered orally twice daily at a total daily dose of mg or 1, mg for 12 weeks. Subjects who completed the week study continued to receive ddI at the lower dose. All subjects were monitored for toxicity. Virologic and immunologic response markers were also measured.

    For the group as a whole, there was no significant decrease in mean hemoglobin level or leukocyte or platelet counts. The dose-limiting toxicity was peripheral neuropathy. Other significant toxicities included pancreatitis and hypocalcemia. Uric acid elevations were common but were without clinical consequence. The mean CD4 lymphocyte count showed an initial increase that was not sustained over the week study. All subjects remained anergic to skin testing. Didanosine is well tolerated hematologically in some patients with prior significant hematologic intolerance to zidovudine.

    The toxicity profile for ddI differs from that of zidovudine and includes peripheral neuropathy and pancreatitis. Changes in CD4 lymphocyte number and HIV p24 antigen levels in some patients suggest antiviral activity of ddI in this population. Cost-effectiveness of exenatide twice daily vs insulin glargine as add-on therapy to oral antidiabetic agents in patients with type 2 diabetes in China.

    To estimate the long-term cost-effectiveness of exenatide twice daily vs insulin glargine once daily as add-on therapy to oral antidiabetic agents OADs for Chinese patients with type 2 diabetes T2DM.

    The Cardiff Diabetes Model was used to simulate disease progression and estimate the long-term effects of exenatide twice daily vs insulin glargine once daily. Patient profiles and treatment effects required for the model were obtained from literature reviews English and Chinese databases and from a meta-analysis of 8 randomized controlled trials comparing exenatide twice daily with insulin glargine once daily add-on to OADs for T2DM in China.

    A series of sensitivity analyses were performed. A greater number of quality-adjusted life years QALYs; 1. In Chinese patients with T2DM inadequately controlled by OADs, exenatide twice daily is a cost-effective add-on therapy alternative to insulin glargine once daily , and may address the problem of an excess of medical needs resulting from weight gain and hypoglycaemia in T2DM treatment.

    Ciclosporin is a selective immunomodulator used for the treatment of atopic dermatitis in dogs. The aim of this study was to assess and compare the pharmacokinetic profiles and bioequivalence of the two formulations following a single oral administration to dogs.

    This randomised, two-period, two-sequence, crossover bioequivalence study was conducted in 40 healthy dogs under fasting conditions. After dosing, blood samples were collected during a h time period at 0, 0. Dogs were monitored once daily throughout the study period for adverse effects. The two ciclosporin oral formulations demonstrated similar pharmacokinetic profiles and were found to be bioequivalent, and therefore, interchangeable. Research has suggested that a daily multiple-stimulus-without-replacement MSWO preference assessment may be more sensitive to changes in preference than other assessment formats, thereby resulting in greater correspondence with reinforcer efficacy over time DeLeon et al.

    However, most prior studies have measured reinforcer efficacy…. Single intravenous and oral dose pharmacokinetics of florfenicol in the channel catfish Ictalurus punctatus. Florfenicol concentrations in plasma were analyzed by means of liquid chromatography Federal Register , , , , Pharmacokinetics of opicapone, a third-generation COMT inhibitor, after single and multiple oral administration: A comparative study in the rat. Thus, this study aimed to compare the plasma pharmacokinetics of opicapone and its active metabolite BIA after the administration of single and multiple oral doses to rats.

    Blood samples were collected up to 24h post-dosing through a cannula introduced in the tail vein of rats. After quantifying opicapone and BIA in plasma, a non-compartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was performed. Opicapone and BIA showed a relatively short plasma elimination half-life 1. Hence, no pharmacokinetic concerns are expected when opicapone is administered with a once- daily dosing regimen. Long-term experience with deferasirox ICL , a once- daily oral iron chelator, in the treatment of transfusional iron overload.

    Chronic iron overload from frequent blood transfusions to treat patients with severe anaemias leads to significant morbidity and mortality. This regimen is problematic and impacts significantly on patients' daily life. To evaluate the efficacy and tolerability of deferasirox, a once- daily oral iron chelator.

    To review the available data reported in peer-reviewed journals using PubMed and at medical conferences. Deferasirox is effective in reducing or maintaining iron burden in patients with transfusion-dependent anaemias. As deferasirox is orally administered, the inconvenience of parenteral administration with deferasirox is avoided.

    Deferasirox improves patient satisfaction and is expected to improve compliance with iron chelation therapy. The author tested the hypothesis that a single bedtime dosage schedule of tricyclic or neuroleptic medication produces increased frequency of night terrors by administering a questionnaire to 30 medical patients who were not receiving such medications and psychiatric patients on either multiple- or single -dosage schedules.

    Psychiatric patients on multiple-dosage schedules reported no more frightening dreams than the medical patients, whereas almost three-fourths of those receiving single bedtime doses had frightening dreams, a significant difference from the medical sample. This preliminary report is presented to call attention to the possible undesirable effects of a single dose schedule. This study investigated the acceptability of daily use of free oral pre-exposure prophylaxis PrEP and associated factors among transgender women sex workers in Shenyang, China, following a briefing on PrEP.

    A total of HIV negative or sero-status unknown participants completed the cross-sectional survey. The prevalence of acceptability of daily use of free oral PrEP was Adjusting for education level and monthly income, variables on negative attitudes toward PrEP i. In addition, experiencing violence during sex work, perceived risk of contracting HIV from clients and probable anxiety were also significant.

    Future PrEP promotion campaigns should consider these factors. A Comparison of Betamethasone Valerate 0. Vitiligo, a common disorder of depigmentation, is often difficult to treat. Corticosteroids are known to be effective, but with modest results.

    Although simvastatin has been reported to be effective for immunorelated dermatologic disorders including vitiligo, controlled trials are lacking.

    This study was conducted to compare the efficacy of topical betamethasone valerate 0. Finally, 46 patients completed treatment after 12 weeks in both groups. The results were evaluated by a blind dermatologist using Vitiligo Area Scoring Index VASI score at baseline, 4 th , 8 th , and 12 th week of treatment. In a similar way, subjective assessment performed by patients based on photo evaluation at the end of the study. This study indicates that oral simvastatin is not associated with significant impacts in the treatment of vitiligo as compared to other inflammatory dermatologic conditions such as psoriasis.

    Indeed, other studies should be initiated regarding exact molecular and cellular effects of statins in the treatment of vitiligo. Single dose intravenous methyl prednisolone versus oral prednisolone in Bell's palsy: A randomized controlled trial. Corticosteroids have been used in the treatment of Bell's palsy and several other postinfectious neurological conditions. We hypothesized that administration of a single dose of intravenous IV methylprednisolone might be an effective alternative to oral prednisolone.

    In this open label, randomized trial, patients with acute Bell's palsy were randomized into two groups. One group received single dose mg of IV methylprednisolone while the other group received 10 days of oral prednisone. Outcome was assessed at 1 and 3 months with House—Brackmann scale. At 3 months, 93 Patients with Grade 2 and 3 recovered completely. A better outcome was observed if corticosteroids were administered within 3 days of onset of palsy.

    Intravenous methylprednisolone and oral prednisolone showed equivalent benefit in patients with acute Bell's palsy.

    Lithospermum erythrorhizon has long been used in traditional Asian medicine for the treatment of diseases, including skin cancer. The oral toxicity of a hexane extract of Lithospermum erythrorhizon root LEH was investigated in Beagle dogs by using single escalating doses, two-week dose range-finding, and 4-week oral repeat dosing. Although levels of serum triglyceride and total bilirubin were increased in a dose dependent manner, there were no related morphological changes.

    Pharmacokinetics of terbinafine after oral administration of a single dose to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots Amazona ventralis. To determine pharmacokinetics after oral administration of a single dose of terbinafine hydrochloride to Hispaniolan Amazon parrots Amazona ventralis.

    Blood samples were collected at the time of drug administration time 0 and 0. Plasma concentrations of terbinafine were determined via high-performance liquid chromatography. Data from 1 bird were discarded because of a possible error in the dose of drug administered. No adverse effects were observed. Additional studies are needed to determine treatment efficacy and safety.

    Singly -qualified medical senior house officer in oral and maxillofacial surgery: Despite constituting a minority of senior house officers SHO in oral and maxillofacial surgery OMFS , the number of singly -qualified medical trainees is growing. We describe the experience of a singly qualified medical trainee in OMFS and the unique benefits and opportunities for potential trainees and the department.

    Overall, the advantages of synergistic training outweigh any deficiencies in knowledge, and in our experience, having both medical and dental trainees in our unit has maximised training opportunities and provided a more holistic approach to patient care. Increased exposure to conditions in the head and neck also benefits trainees who wish to pursue careers in other specialties such as ear, nose, and throat ENT , neurosurgery, ophthalmology, and plastic surgery.

    Published by Elsevier Ltd. Cost-effectiveness analysis of exenatide twice daily BID vs insulin glargine once daily QD as add-on therapy in Chinese patients with Type 2 diabetes mellitus inadequately controlled by oral therapies. To estimate cost-effectiveness of exenatide twice daily BID vs insulin glargine once daily QD as add-on therapy in Chinese type 2 diabetes patients not well controlled by oral anti-diabetic OAD agents. The Cardiff model was populated with data synthesized from three head-to-head randomized clinical trials of up to 30 weeks in China comparing exenatide BID vs insulin glargine as add-on therapies to oral therapies in the Chinese population.

    The Cardiff model generated outputs including macrovascular and microvascular complications, diabetes-specific mortality, costs, and quality-adjusted life years QALYs. The cost-effectiveness results were robust to various sensitivity analyses including probabilistic sensitivity analysis. The variables with the most impact on incremental cost-effectiveness ratio included HbA1c level at baseline, health utilities decrement, and BMI at baseline.

    Low-dose cyclophosphamide administered as daily or single dose enhances the antitumor effects of a therapeutic HPV vaccine. Cyclophosphamide CTX is a systemic chemotherapeutic agent, which can eradicate immune cells, including inhibitory Tregs. The optimal dose and schedule of CTX administration in combination with immunotherapy to eliminate the Treg population without adversely affecting vaccine-induced T-cell responses is unknown.

    Therefore, we investigated various dosing and administration schedules of CTX in combination with a therapeutic HPV vaccine in a preclinical tumor model. Both single and daily dosing of CTX in combination with vaccine had a synergistic anti-tumor effect as compared to monotherapy alone. We recommend a single , preconditioning dose of CTX prior to vaccination due to its efficacy, ease of administration, and reduced cumulative adverse effect on vaccine-induced T cells.

    Fluralaner as a single dose oral treatment for Caparinia tripilis in a pygmy African hedgehog. African pygmy hedgehogs Atelerix albiventris are popular pets belonging to the Erinaceidae family of spined mammals. Amongst the most common skin diseases occurring in this species is infestation caused by the mite Caparinia spp. Due to their skin anatomy and spiny coat, detection of skin lesions in these hedgehogs can be difficult. This may result in delays in seeking medical care, which may lead to secondary bacterial infection and self-inflicted trauma.

    Multiple therapies have been used in the treatment of this skin condition including ivermectin, amitraz, fipronil and selamectin. A drug which could be administered as a single oral dose would be advantageous to these pets and their owners. A month-old African pygmy hedgehog weighing g. Response to treatment was monitored by dermatological examination and superficial skin scrapings repeated at 7, 14, 21, 30, 60, 90 and days following fluralaner administration.

    On Day 7 after treatment, adult mites were observed exhibiting normal movement. On Day 14, only dead mites were observed. No life stages of the mites were found after Day Further studies are required to evaluate the drug's safety and toxicology in hedgehogs, and to confirm efficacy. Bioavailability of ambroxol sustained release preparations.

    Single and multiple oral dose studies in man. The bioavailability of a new ambroxol sustained release preparation 75 mg based on a dialyzing membrane for controlled release was studied in healthy volunteers after single and multiple oral dose in comparison with a standard sustained release formulation in a cross-over study under carefully controlled conditions.

    Assimilation is alive and well. The effects of residental schools is still very much alive and well in our community. We have a lot of work to do. Now being able to do that now, I made a lot of mistakes, but it is that acknoledgment. Hopefully I canss how young people through my leadrship that you can do a lot of things. I hope to get my community to where we are no longer struggling. And further down the road how will that look.

    My term is only 2 years so I have my work cut out for me. We have come a long ways. Even just the unity of our families is better, it is not sunshine and rainbow but it is getting better.

    I hope we will all be able to move forward through inclusiveness. My late uncle Bernard always stressed inclusiveness and I hope I can bring that feeling back to the Semiahmoo band build bridges with all our neighbours. Hello David and welcome to the electronic pages of the White Rock Sun. First if you would, a bit of your personal background. How long have you lived in White Rock? Tell us a bit about your personal background if you will.

    Like many people I realized it gets very cold there and not so much here so a few decades ago I moved out here. I worked in the tech sector in the early days. Networks were modems and connecting TRS computers to printers. It was a great field of work - still is because technology came out so fast that you always had to be on your game.

    I think it's the thing that made me sharp. I tend to look for errors, failures and system flaws which makes me kind of incapable of ignoring bad management.

    When you spend your day chasing down problems and designing fixes you just become that way. Give me a problem and chances are I can sort it out. I did that for decades. I fell in love with this city when I made a visit here from Winnipeg in the early 90s. Proud to call White Rock my home for the past 22 years. I personally call actions like yours, the Couch Dynamite syndrome. By that I mean we all reach a tipping point.

    Well, you've got to remember my background. In IT you see a problem and you want to fix it. When it comes to humans, which is really the other side of IT, you need to take into account human failings and motivations.

    So I'm always looking at motivations and I usually identify these things early on. With these damn ads it was clear to me right away that they were polishing a BC Liberal turd. What got me was that nobody was calling them out. Then they just kept running them, like we're all a bunch of idiots.

    When I was talking to Paul about it he doesn't have a TV but he has a shorter fuse and a tendency to kick the door in he said I may be the last reasonable man. And I'm an angry reasonable man. Who better than to be the lawsuit guy than me? Have you in the past had any previous epiphanies that motivated you to become active politically or socially?

    I've always been paying attention. If you're paying attention, you're political. My interest over my lifetime drops when we have less offensive Government and heats to a boil when we have Government serving themselves and some cronies. Right now, people should be in the street protesting. They were all angry a decade back. What I don't get is our government in BC is far worse, far more corrupt, far more self interested than I've ever seen in at any time in my life.

    Just look at the USA. Doroshenko writes a great blog and because his office is up against the government they deal with these issues first hand. A few years ago I started writing to Paul to give him feedback about his blog. We have similar feelings on things and we became friends. We have lunch every couple of months and he tells me about some of the awful things this government does that he won't even write on the blog. I appreciate that he fights the good fight.

    It's a battle about ethics for him. When it came to these partisan ads paid by tax dollars, I thought somebody ought to do something. Turns out that somebody is me. When Paul made the suggestion, I didn't hesitate. I can take on this fight. Is the fund in place now? There are a lot of angry people out there, pissed that Christy Clark is spending their money on these partisan ads.

    It's an innovative way to pay some of these expenses and knowing what Doroshenko and David Fai have spent financing some of these other cases I'm glad for this one we came up with some way to offset the costs for them. For the lawyers there's only risk so I'm proud of them for taking this on. They say I'm their hero! These guys and the lawyers in their offices are the ones to thank. What is the next step in your process of the injunction.

    As I said at the press conference a first for me , I'm learning a lot as we go. David and Paul are criminal lawyers most of the time and they say they need to put on black hats each time they take on civil cases.

    They say that civil lawyers are usually desperate to avoid going to court and they look for every tool in the toolbox to block the process. In the end the point is to get it in front of a judge and the first step is the injunction application. That's as far as I can talk about it because I've been told I've also got to wear a black hat for now. Still, I told my lawyers that if we're going to do this I don't want them to use any black hat tactics.

    We're just going to make our case. That's all we can do. What exactly is the wording of the injunction, what are you and the lawyers asking the courts to do? Our only concern is the ads that are all spin. So we hope to stop those ads and that's the purpose of the injunction. The fentanyl crisis is a public health crisis and that's obviously something the government should inform the public about. They have to stop. Is it your hope the courts will be able to address your injunction prior to the Provincial election in May?

    We have a tentative date. I'm not allowed to say more than that black hat moment. All levels of government have been criticized for various aspects of how political parties raise funds to finance their election campaigns.

    Do you have any reform ideas you personally would like to see implemented? I solved problems for decades and if you want to drag the retired guy out to figure this one out for you, I can certainly do it. But expect a 40 page report.

    The answers aren't simple. The ethics are simple but designing a functioning system that eliminates graft starting with a clean sheet of paper is a big task. There has been no shortage of options presented for reform For instance at the civic level here in White Rock and across the province candidates for election do not have to post the list of their contributors until AFTER the election has occurred.

    That to me is a no brainer. We should know who bought the politician before we cast our vote. Any politician who opposes this should be suspect. The BC Liberals are in the back pocket of the real estate industry - that comes as a surprise to no one I think. Do your personal political leanings have any bearing on your action?

    Or is simply personal frustration with the current system? I'd like to say I have an ideological leaning, if only to make it simple. But each time the government changed I tipped my hat to the new constitution, smiled and grinned at the change all around me. But I'm not fooled. The thing is a decent government may be good for 4 years, complacent for 4 years and if they get another 4 years they're corrupt and doing anything to hold power.

    If the parties are too extreme they never get anywhere. This has been the NDP's failing. The Liberals are corrupt and deserve to get turfed. The NDP walks a little too far from the centre line.

    Still, corruption is a worse evil in my books. To answer your question, I'm a realist. But I hate corruption. No government will do the job I want them to do. At my age I'm not an idealist. But I don't want to see a political party using my tax money to advertise to re elect them. That's what we call corruption and I hope to stop it. As the world continues to turn my world continues to change. I choose to be the witness and the observer of my own journey.

    I am a traveler looking to leave my stamp. My story has a point, let me begin. I was talking to my friend Charron and I told her " I am not sure how to respond to some people at times when they ask me something that I am not sure how to take what they said or asked.

    I have to ask myself is this person just naive, or are they just curious, what they have just asked me seems rather insensitive. I have had the joy and pleasure of traveling extensively and seeing a lot of the world. I always try to reply in some way shape or from and to try to engage the person in a brief conversation in order that they may learn a bit more about me and my culture.

    On more than one occasion as I try to reply to the person they will just talk over me and it appears to me they have no interest in what I have to say. I quite often answer the question about Africa by saying "I am from my mother's belly. On once occasion I went to Save On Food foods to do my weekly shopping.

    I was picking through the peppers when a woman came up to me and grasped both my hands and said " "How is the family back home? You know I fund-raise here to send money and clothes to the little kids. Oh you are so lucky to be here. I think it is that assumption that bothers me the most.

    Last month during one of our snow storms I arrived in the lobby of our condo and as I was trying to get my gloves off so I could open the mailbox, one of the residents of the building was in the condo, she looked at me and said "It is so cold out out there, you must be missing your home. We have snow here in Canada. She wasn't trying to be insensitive, just ignorant of the facts. I turned and said to her " You're right this is nothing like where I come from, back home the temperature yesterday was minus 40 degrees.

    I was talking to my mother in Montreal and they are having quite a tough winter. I am happy to be here where our winters are much milder. I commented on what a beautiful blouse she had on. Just then we arrived at her floor and she ran out like she was on fire.

    I love my new "city by the sea. I find a wonderful cross section of young and old and more and more I am noticing new arrivals of colour. I try to never take the somewhat insensitive statements people make personal.

    I know they do not have any mean intentions. I still find myself wanting to try to educate in a nice manner, how insensitive certain questions can be. I realize they are not said in a spiteful manner. The monthly meeting is designed for women in our community to come together in a very relaxed atmosphere. My husband and I moved from Langley to the Semiahmoo Peninsula when we downsized from our home to condo living, which I love. Not long after we moved here our oldest daughter passed away and I retired.

    I was looking for some way to connect to people and to make new friends here, that is when I found out about the Newcomers Club. It has been very fulfilling for me. Is the group part of a national organization or is this a one off that was created by local women? We fall under the umbrella of a national organization.

    There are many chapters all across Canada. Newcomers are invited to experience one meeting free then there is a small annual fee. When and where are your meetings? Our meetings are open to women to come and check the club out as a visitor. Newcomers are allowed to attend one meeting and two coffee meetings called Percolators before joining. It gives new prospects a chance to see if the club is what they are looking for. I was interested to learn the meetings are designed to be more than just a meet-up for new residents to the Semiahmoo Peninsula.

    Not only are we for newcomers to the area, we also accept women in the area who may have had a recent significant life change such as a divorce, retiring from their job or widowed. Making new friends and having many activities to participate in is great for everyone's well being.. The night I attended your recent meeting there were quite a number of women in attendance. How many members are part of the club? I got the impression the members take with them a feeling of support once they leave a meeting.

    Do the members find themselves networking and keeping in touch with each other. Are there other activities that have sprung up from the club? There are many diverse activities within our program. From active outings like walking, golf and bowling. We also cater to women with a more sedentary lifestyle with movies, cards, book club and games. We also are a very social group with lunches, pub nights and parties. We are always open to creating new activities if there is an interest and a member wants to host it.

    We are on board. Many of the ladies have struck up close friendships and it is not uncommon that outings such as shopping, a visit to the theatre or a get together over a nice dinner. We also have events where our spouses are welcome. On a personal level what have the benefits you have personally attained from joining the group?

    I have made many new friends and have had the opportunity to explore my new community. Our coffee, lunch and restaurant events move us all around the area We mostly seek out the franchised venues which in turn support our community directly. We have all had the op[opportunity to learn about new places from other members of the club.

    For details on the club and their activities click here. David how were you first drawn to the use of marijuana for medical uses? I have to emphasis I have no medical qualifications but when someone close to you has a serious medical condition you become interested in research to help them as much as possible. My eldest daughter Beth had a brain tumour and when we were told by BCCH that her type of tumour had changed my new research led me to understanding about potential benefits of cannabis.

    I use the word cannabis rather than marijuana or marihuana Health Canada spelling as that is the correct botanical name for the plant while marijuana was a word created for the sake of prohibition in the s. As a former senior officer in the Royal Air Force I had been exposed to a career where I thought I knew enough about this drug but I had to be re-educated to understand that what I thought I knew was mostly untrue. Cannabis is hugely stigmatized and it is only recently that the general public have been exposed to the science and benefits of cannabis for human health.

    I am an unlikely advocate for this but cannot deny what I have learned and observed. I think most people that are reading this story find themselves very confused about medical marijuana.

    Am I correct that the heat with which you burn medical marijuana will affect the release of the active drug THC in marijuana, as opposed to cabbanoids which are the actual medical properties of medical marijuana? I am not surprised they are confused! Cannabis contains over separate compounds. Of those are cannabinoid compounds that do not occur in any other plant. The most familiar cannabinoid is THC which produces the euphoric high that is most associated with recreational use.

    Nonetheless, THC also has a multitude of medical benefits including nausea control and pain relief. Furthermore, the other cannabinoids have a multitude of benefits and work collectively in something referred to as the entourage or ensemble effect. It is worth noting that pharmaceutical companies have made synthetic THC drugs but these lack the balancing effect obtained from whole-plant cannabis and have proven less acceptable.

    Nonetheless, it is important for patients to understand the benefits that different cannabinoids can have for their condition.

    Some conditions require minimal THC and therefore avoid a euphoric effect or high. As you will read below heating cannabis is not always required for medical benefits. There are a number of different ways for one to ingest medical marijuana correct?

    Edibles, oil and or vaporization? There are a significant number of different methods to ingest cannabis. Most people are familiar with the smoking of cannabis. However, there are numerous other methods of administration and all vary in their utility, effects and application depending on the medical condition. Oromucosal administration is sprayed directly into the cheeks of the mouth and absorbed through the membranes.

    Frequently, a doctor will use 2 or 3 methods in combination to assist a patient. Finally, the leaves of the plant can be eaten raw or juiced and used in drinks. You recently were asked to partake in a large medical marijuana conference in Vancouver. Could you provide us with an overview of the topics and revelations that came forth at the conference? I was honoured to chair the Cannabinoid Panel which was the first of the weekend. The Conference panels included plant genetics, legalization, industrial hemp, patient care, patient access and medicinal uses plus many others.

    You have worked with a number of local residents in the White Rock area who have benefitted immensely from their use of medical marijuana. Are you able to provide a first person story or two? I will start with Audrey who is 80 years young. When I first met her in summer she used a walker and suffered from spinal stenosis after 4 back surgeries. She had been on anti-inflammatory medications for over 40 years.

    She was using a number of prescribed drugs and was extremely unhappy. Since she introduced cannabis to her treatment she has stopped all prescription medications, no longer uses her walker and has started gardening again. Next I will talk about year old Lindsey who suffered from frequent epileptic seizures following a car accident a few years ago. The impact on her life was dramatic and negatively affected her marriage, her career and just about everything else.

    She was also on a host of medications. I met her in spring of and 6 months later she is off prescription medications and like a new woman. Finally, 3-year old Kolbi had a brain tumour removed and his family were told it would likely recur extremely quickly. His parents then declined radiation to the brain in the USA which was guaranteed to negatively his development. However, he has been on cannabis treatment for 2 years and all his scans since have come back negative.

    All of these patients had families helping them and doctors willing to support them and have observed dramatic improvements. These are just 3 cases and all come from the Peninsula area. Local governments including White Rock city council are wrestling with how to handle the licensing of medical marijuana dispensaries. They are now requesting a license to distribute medical marijuana to members of our community.

    What is the process one would go through to be able to purchase medical marijuana legally. This is a minefield and regulations are changing as we correspond. Best to wait until after 24 August to know what is available. The federal Liberal government has promised to legalize the distribution of marijuana in the coming years.

    You are mixing legalisation with medical access - they are 2 different things. The Allard decision came down on 24 Feb and gave the federal Govt 6 months to comply or the injunction remains in place. People are patiently waiting. The Allard case is medical not legalisation. If you are bored you can read all pages in the attached! The conclusion is item Do you have any thoughts on this topic?

    Some, but not all, dispensaries conduct third-party testing of product. Nonetheless, any patient can have their product tested and independent and fully licensed laboratories should they wish In that the marijuana plant is exactly that, a plant, how do you feel about allowing users of marijuana to grow plants for their own personal use?

    The Allard case has highlighted their rights to grow their own medicine or designate someone to do so for them.

    I expect this to be big news in the next 2 weeks. My perspective is irrelevant but the government completely failed to demonstrate to the Supreme Court either the harms or dangers they claimed were attached to personal growing. It is no more harmful than growing your own orchids and less harmful than refilling your gasoline lawnmower. This begs the question — how is hemp different from marijuana? Hemp and cannabis are both the same plant — Cannabis Sativa.

    However, legal implications has restricted industrial hemp to less than 0. Growers in Canada, extensive in the prairies, have many limitations on what they do with the plants. You have once again been asked to participate in a Hemp Conference to be held this Fall at the University of British Columbia? What are the dates and the topics the conference deal with?

    Should this money simply go into general revenue or do you have any feelings on how the profits should be directed. No strong feelings other than to fund research on the amazing medical and numerous other benefits of this plant. Colorado and our neighbours in Washington have legalized marijuana.

    They are now wrestling with how to measure and deal with impaired drivers that are high on marijuana. Any thoughts of how to set up a method of testing other than taking a blood sample? All testing proposed so far detects presence but not impairment. Again we are straying off medical and into legalisation and law enforcement. This needs work to deploy something effective — it will come from the USA imho although Canadians are trying too.

    If you would more information sign up for a weekly podcast on medical marijuana click here. Bill rose to a lot of public attention with this photo he captured during our winter storm. As the high winds and waves pounded our shorelines Hawke with camera in hand braved the elements for this award winning photograph. It wasn't a stretch or even a long walk for that matter. I have lived in White Rock for 10 years, I am originally from Cloverdale.

    I just love it here" says Hawke over coffee in an uptown diner recently. The old adage of "if life gives you lemons, make lemonade" played perfectly into Hawke's recent close up photos of the personal jet flown in by the rock band Iron MAIDEN for their Vancouver show. The band was really cool. So I had access out on the tarmac whey the band arrived. If you follow the link I will post at the end of this article you really should take a few minutes and poke around the wide array of photo subjects Bill has posted over the years.

    Sunrises, sunsets, every imaginable angle of the pier, trains, cool hot rods on the cruise, something for everyone. We'll have more on younger brother FERG in the coming weeks. Let's get back to Bill. IF working full time at the airport and allotting enough time to catch just the right light that makes the difference between a good photo and a HAWKE photo.

    Pressed to see if he could come up with a few of his favourite photos, which is not unlike asking a mother which one of her kids was her favourite. That would depend on the day and the time. Here are a pair of Bill's favourites this week along with his museum storm photo.

    Being out on the pier is my favourite place. I start work at 4 a. There is no traffic going either way. He then rusn his photos through about three different software programs to get what he refers to a HDR effect. Visit Bill's personal photograph website www. If you enjoyed reading this story and know a Peninsula resident worthy of a profile, please send me an email. Myles Murchison was one of the top writers in Canadian radio during the cool years of FM radio in the 60's and 70's. I was stumped for an answer.

    The hour news cycle? That got us into the discussion I used to love having with the Witnesses at my door. No, these people genuinely wanted to save my soul. How many strangers do you met who care enough to face embarrassment and rejection to do that?

    I know a number of people who grew up in JW families and hated it. I appreciate that you care. Chief Joseph escapes, leading men, women and children and thousands of horses on an amazing mile retreat, outwitting five separate U. Was there any particular event of person that inspired your desire to create art? I chose to go back to school an pursue an MFA when I was going through a transitional period in my life. Growing up it had never occurred to me that this path was even an option as I had a limited vision for possibility.

    My late uncle Bernard Charles wanted me to become a female carver for our community and encouraged me to pursue a career in the arts. However due to lack of support for indigenous education systems I decided to take a different route and go back to school.

    This is also something he was very supportive of. It has definitely been inspiring to work in close proximity to Robert Davidson as well as Leonard and Leslie Wells whom apprenticed under Robert. I believe Bernard would be very happy and proud of the work that Semiahmoo artists are producing today. You and your fellow artists will have a day of celebration. What can we expect?

    June 21, National Aboriginal Day will showcase indigenous artwork from various communities and feature artists working all day on location. From a very young age I was completely blown away by its beauty. At that time I was not aware of perspective, form line or western painting. I just remember being moved by the vibrant colour, vitality, and realism in his work. It is this merging of two worlds which interests me the most. The combination of western art practices and traditional design is huge component of my work as well.

    I also feel the politically charged nature of his work and advocacy against environmental issues is still something that resonates strongly with me still today. His work is a prime example of how art can be meaningful and beautiful at the same time.

    Visitors to the Pop Up Gallery in White Rock this month have had the opportunity to view what I assume is your largest piece. The combination of western art practices and traditional Salish design is an integral component of my work.

    It is this merging of two radically different cultures which interests me the most. My work reflects the diverse world we live in today while maintaining a strong connection to the traditional teachings of indigenous peoples and my family lineage.

    As an Salish women living in contemporary times I often feel a pull or tension between the village and the metropolis. My body of work explores these two aspects of life and is a hybrid of both cultures not only conceptually but also through the use of materials. My work often explores the issues we are facing today. A few of those issues and concerns are related to the environment, suicide, addiction, violence lateral, systemic, domestic , intergenerational trauma, and the colonial legacy of Canada.

    The work addresses my frustration and distress with many issues indigenous peoples as well of Canadians feel towards the negative impacts we are seeing today. The Transformation figure stands for a symbol of strength and hope for future generations. Made of all recycled garbage and industrial materials his presence is a visceral reminder that we are still here, strong and resilien.

    Roxanne Charles - Breath. You have been conducting weaving classes during your stay at the Pop Up gallery. Who taught you how to weave? Do you wish to keep this tradition alive? I have been working with cedar bark for over 25 years. I make both traditional Salish basketry as well as contemporary designs.

    I am able to create things on both a micro and macro scale and really enjoy creating large installations. I have been fortunate enough to have spent time with numerous master weavers and I have always been extremely inspired by my cousin Ethel Warbus. My great great grandmother Matilda Warbus was also a master weaver and contemporary designer. Her hand woven cedar violin case can be found at the Museum of Anthropology.

    We recently formed a collective for Semiahmoo Weavers consisting of Semiahmoo First Nation community members who are interested in the preservation of weaving across generations. We are a group of community members who each have experience working with cedar and various weaving techniques. This project is a dream of mine and a key component to the revitalization of arts, language, and culture in our community. We are extremely committed to providing services to our community.

    I believe it strengthens the community, builds cultural pride and identity intern creating a powerful sense of self and esteem. If anyone is interested in Semiahmoo history it would be a great time to take the opportunity to go in and visit the gallery.

    I am more than willing to answer any questions. It would be a lovely opportunity to join in the long standing tradition of sharing and celebration of oral history. I am very interested in indigenous knowledge and the fashion in which knowledge is transmitted through generosity and human interaction.

    The Drawing on Life Art Group is a long standing group of loosely affiliated artists that meet weekly to pursue still life and figure drawing exercises.

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